Phytochemical Analysis and Antiplasmodial (curative) Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Morinda lucida (Ewe Oruwo) in Male Swiss Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65

Main Article Content

Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie
Damazio Olanrewaju Anthony
Ajetunmobi Asibiallau Oladipupo
Babalola Adenike Omosalewa
Adekunle Oluwasegun Michael
Busari Nafeesat Olabisi
Musa Abdullahi Aiyegbeni

Abstract

Aim: Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of many infections and diseases including malaria. The study was conducted to determine the effect of in vivo anti-plasmodial and antioxidant properties of the methanolic leaf extract of Morinda lucida in male Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium Berghei NK65.

Study Design and Methodology: Phytochemical, GC-MS and AAS analyses were determined in the plant. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Plasmodium berghei NK65. Thirty-five (35) mice were grouped into seven groups, five per group. Group A were not infected with P.berghei NK65. Group B, C and D served as the negative and positive control groups while Group E, F and G mice were treated with 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaf extract of M. lucida. Haematological parameters were determined in the whole blood using BC-3200 Auto Hematology Analyzer. TP, MDA, CAT, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit and vitamin A were all determined in the liver homogenate using standard procedures.

Results: The GC-MS result of the M. lucida shows the presence of five bioactive compounds. It was also observed that the plant contains the following minerals: iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and copper. Acute toxicity shows that the LD50 >000mg/Kg b.wt. The extract caused 30.96%, 32.93% and 67.23% reduction in parasitemia at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively while chloroquine exerted 96.53% and artesunate exerted 92.03% reduction at 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. The Haematological parameters showed that the plant extract is not haematotoxic since it significantly (P<0.05) reduced WBC count, and increase RBC, HGB, and HCT values in the treated mice compared to the infected untreated mice. This study shows that the mean lipid peroxidation (MDA) level was significantly decreased in the malaria treated mice (group C, D, E, F and G) compared to the untreated mice (group B). There was also a significant increase in the total protein, catalase, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit and Vitamin A levels in the liver homogenate of animals treated with chloroquine, artesunate and extract of M. lucida compared to the untreated mice.

Conclusions: The study shows that Morinda lucida possess antiplasmodial activity in male Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65.

Keywords:
Morinda lucida, anti-plasmodial activity, AAS, phytochemical analysis, biochemical parameters and Plasmodium berghei NK 65 infected Swiss mice

Article Details

How to Cite
Oshiobugie, M. J., Anthony, D. O., Oladipupo, A. A., Omosalewa, B. A., Michael, A. O., Olabisi, B. N., & Aiyegbeni, M. A. (2019). Phytochemical Analysis and Antiplasmodial (curative) Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Morinda lucida (Ewe Oruwo) in Male Swiss Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 37(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v37i130156
Section
Original Research Article

References

WHO. The World Health Organization World Malaria Report 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.

World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2011: The successes, existing challenges and the way forward. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.

Lawal HO, Etatuvie SO, Fawehinmi AB. Ethnomedicinal and pharmacological properties of Morinda lucida. J Nat Prod. 2012;5:93-99.

Adeneye AA, Agbaje EO. Pharmacological evaluation of oral hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effects of fresh leaves ethanol extract of Morinda lucida benth in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. African J. Biomedical Research. 2008;11(1):65-71.
[ISSN 1119 – 5096] © Ibadan Biomedical Communications Group

Maimuna BU, Emmanuel OO, Josephine YI, Oluwakanyinsola AS, Adeniyi YT, Ibrahim MH. Antiplasmodial efficacy of methanolic root and leaf extracts of Morinda lucida. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013;3(2).
[ISSN 2224-3186, ISSN 2225-0921]

Koumaglo KM, Gbeassor O, Nikabu C, de Souza, Werner W. Effects of three compounds extracted from Morinda lucida on Plasmodium falciparum. Planta Med. 1992;58:533-534.

Obih PO, Makinde JM, Laoye JO. Investigations of various extracts of Morinda lucida for antimalaraial actions on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. Afr. J. Med. Med Sci. 1985;14:45-49.

Asuzu IU, Chineme CN. Effects of Morinda lucida leaf extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice. J. Ethnophamacol. 1990;30:307-331.

Principe P. Monetising the pharmaco-logical benefits of plants. US Environ-mental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C; 2005.

Stenhagen E, Abrahamson S, McLafferty F. Registry of spectral data. J. Wiley and Sons, New York, NY; 1974.

Jennings W, Shibamoto T. Quality of flavour and fragrance volatiles by glass capillary gas chromatography. Academic Press, New York, NY; 1980.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. 1973;49-188.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicines in Africa. Spectrum Book Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria; 1993.

Trease GE, Evans WC. (Pharmacognosy. 14th ed. London: W.B. Sanders Company; 1985.

Momoh J, Aina OO, Akoro SM, Ajibaye O, Okoh HI. In vivo anti-plasmodial activity and the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on hematological and lipid parameters in swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 6. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2014;35(1-2):109-116.
[ISSN 1117 4145]

Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity test. Arch. Toxicol. 1993;54:275-286.

Maegraith BG, Deegan T, Sherwood EJ. Suppression of malarial (P. berghei) by milk. British Medical Journal. 1952; 2(4799):1388.

Ryley JF, Peters W. The anti-malarial activity of some quinolone esters. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 1970;84:209-222.

Jiang ZY, Hunt JY, Wolff SP. Detection of lipid hydroperoxides using the ‘Fox method’. Anal Biochem. 1992;202:384-389.

McCord J, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase, an enzymic function for erythro-cuprin. J. Biol. Chem. 1969;244:6049–6055.

Rajagopalen R, kode A, Penumathsa SV, Kailikat NR, Venugopal, PM. Comparative effects of Curcumin and an analog of Curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress. J. Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2004;7(2):274-283.

Rutkowski M, Grzegorczyk K. Modifi-cations of spectrophotometric methods for antioxidative vitamins determination convenient in analytic Practice. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 2007;6(3):17-28.

Kirsten B, Ramesh P, John BB. 2,4,5-tribromo-1H-Imidazole in the egg masses of three muricid molluscs. Natural Product Research. 2004;18(5):427–431.

Motlaleputa M. Antimalarial medicines from the medicinal plants of Southern Africa project. Quarterly Report; 2003.

Oluyemi EA, Akilua AA, Adenuya AA, Adebayo MB. Mineral contents of some commonly consumed Nigerian foods. Science Focus. 2006;11:153-157.

Elliot P, Kesteloot H, Appel LJ, Dyer AR, Ueshima H, Chan Q, Brown IJ, Zhao L, Stamler J. Dietary phosphorous and blood pressure International study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension. 2008;51:669-675.

Houston MC, Harper KJ. Potassium, magnesium and calcium: Their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2008;10(7):3-11.

Andreini C, Bertini I, Cavallaro G, Holliday, GL, Thomton JM. Metal ions in biological catalysis: From enzyme databases to general principles. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2008;13:1205-1218.

Matur BM, Mathew T, Ifeanyi CIC. Analysis of the phytochemical and in vivo antimalarial properties of Phyllanthus fraternusn Webster extract. New York Sci. J. 2009;2:12-19.

Alshawsh SM, Mothana RA, Al-Shamahy HA, Alsllami SF, Lindequist U. Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants. eCAM. 2007;6:453-456.

Bruce RD. An up-and-down procedure for acute toxicity testing. Fundamental Applied Toxicology. 1985;5:151-157.

Bruce RD. A confirmatory study of upand- down method of acute oral toxicity testing. Fundamental Applied Toxicology. 1987;8:97–100.

American society for testing and materials. Standard test method for estimating acute oral toxicity in rats. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, U.S.A. 1987;1163 87.

Thomas AM, Van Der Wel AM, Thoma AW, Janse CJ, Water AP. Transfection systems for animal models of malaria. Parasitol Today. 1998;14:248-249.

Pedroni HC, Bettoni CC, Spalding SM, Costa TD. Plasmodium berghei development of an irreversible experimental malaria model in wistar rats. Exp Parasitol. 2006;113:193-196.

English MC, Waruiri C, Lightowler C, Murphy SA, Kirigha G, Marsh K. Hyponatraemia and dehydration in severe malaria. Arch Dis Childhood. 1996;74:201-205.

Kumar KA, Singn S, Babu PP. Studies on the glycoprotein modification in erythrocyte membrane during experimental cerebral malaria. Exp Parasitol. 2006;114:173- 179.

Idih FM, Ighorodje-Monago CC, Ezim OE. Antiplasmodial effect of ethanol extract of Morinda lucida and Mucuna pruriens leaves on NK65 chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2017;7:234.
DOI: 10.4172/2161-1459.1000234

Bello IS, Oduola T, Adeosun OG, Omisore NOA, Raheem GO, Ademosun AA. Evaluation of antimalarial activity of various fractions of Morinda lucida leaf extract and Alstonia boonei stem bark. Global J. Pharmacol. 2009;3(3):163-165.

Umar MB, Ogbadoyi EO, Ilumi JY, Salawu OA, Tijani AY, et al. Antiplasmodial efficacy of methanolic root and leaf extracts of Morinda lucida. J Nat Sci Res; 2013.

Menendez C, Fleming AF, Alonso PL. Malaria-related anaemia. Parasitol Today. 2000;16:469-476.

Akindele AJ, Busayo FI. Effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (Fabaceae) on haematological profile in normal and haloperidol treated rats. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2011;21:93-98.

Momoh JO, Adeniyi MO, Aderele OR. Experimental and mathematical model for the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf against CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in sprague dawley male albino rats. JAMMR. 2018;26(5):1-14.
[Article no.JAMMR.32062 ISSN: 2456-8899]

Salvi M, Battaglia V, Brunati AM, LaRocca N, Tibaldi E, Pietrangeli P, Marcocci L, Mondovi B, Rossi CA, Toninello A. Catalase takes part in rat liver mitochondria oxidative stress defense. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24407–24415.