Main Article Content
Introduction: West Nile Virus (WNV) infection is an important arthropod-borne zoonosis viral disease. This virus is neglected in Yemen especially in Hodeidah.
Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to detect WNV infection, determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics within febrile patients in Hodeidah city and to determine some risk factors associated with WNV infection.
Materials and Methods: 136 febrile patients in a hospital base study were diagnosed in Center of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (CTMID), Authority of General Al-Thawara Hospital, Hodeidah, Yemen from January of 2017 to December of 2017. WNV infection was detected by enzyme linkage immune sorbent assay (ELISA) on serum samples.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that 5 cases (3.67%) were WNV – positive namely IgM that was detected in winter and spring seasons, the most prevalent antibodies of WNV were IgG namely 75 cases (55.14%). Most common symptoms were fever, headache, fatigue, weakness, arthralgia, myalgia and photophobia. The treatment based on the intravenous therapy (IV) with anti-pyritic, plasma in some cases and all cases were recovered while mortality rate was 00%.
Conclusion: WNV was detected in Hodeidah which placed in Tehama "western Yemen", as first time by our preliminary study that confirmed the evidence of WNV IgM and IG antibodies presence on 2017, in order to increase safety of diagnosis of febrile diseases, it is essential to continue surveillance of this emerging infection, suggesting that this emergence has been transported by migratory birds from wintering areas to Tehama region.
Poidinger M, Hall RA, Mackenzie JS. Molecular characterization of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of the flavivirus genus. Virology. 1996;218(2):417-21.
Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2002;2(9):519-29.
Smith BP. Large animal internal medicine; 2009.
Van der Meulen KM, Pensaert MB, Nauwynck HJ. West Nile virus in the vertebrate world. Archives of Virology. 2005;150(4)637-57.
World Health Organization (WHO). West Nile virus. Fact sheet N°354, July Geneva, WHO; 2011.
Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerging infectious diseases. 2003;9(3):311.
Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, O'Leary DR, Campbell GL. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8): 1167.
Mostashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT, Singer DA, Nash D, Cooper MJ, Katz N, Liljebjelke KA, Biggerstaff BJ, Fine AD, Layton MC. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York 1999: Results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. The Lancet. 2001;358(9278):261-4, 2001.
Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O'leary D, Murray K, Huang A, Rosenberg A, Greenberg A, Sherman M, Wong S. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001;344(24):1807-14.
Weiss D, Carr D, Kellachan J, Tan C, Phillips M, Bresnitz E, Layton M. West Nile virus outbreak response working group. Clinical findings of West Nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, New York and New Jersey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(4):654.
Taylor RM, Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Rizk F. A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt1. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1956;5(4):579-620.
Smithburn KC, Jacobs HR. Neutralization-Tests against neurotropic viruses with Sera Collected in Central Africa. Journal of Immunology. 1942;43(5):9-23.
Weinberger M, Pitlik SD, Gandacu D, Lang R, Nassar F, David DB, Rubinstein E, Izthaki A, Mishal J, Kitzes R, Siegman-Igra Y. West Nile fever outbreak, Israel, 2000: epidemiologic aspects. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(4):686.
Batieha A, Saliba EK, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah. Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4): 358.
Abutarbush SM, Al‐Majali AM. West Nile virus infection in horses in Jordan: Clinical cases, seroprevalence and risk factors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2014;61(1):1-6.
Al-Ghamdi GM. Incidence of West nile virus in Al—Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Virology. 2014;10 (2):163-7.
Wernery U, Kettle T, Moussa M, Babiker H, Whiting J. West Nile fever in the United Arab Emirates. Wildlife Middle East. 2007;12(2):2.
CSO. Cental Statistical Office. Statistical yeadbook. Sana'a, Yemen; 2010.
Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Arboviral Diseases, Neuroinvasive and Non-neuroinvasive 2015 Case Definition; 2015.
Hadjichristodoulou C, Pournaras S, Mavrouli M, Marka A, Tserkezou P, Baka A, Billinis C, Katsioulis A, Psaroulaki A, Papa A, Papadopoulos N. West Nile virus seroprevalence in the Greek population in 2013: A nationwide cross-sectional survey. PloS One. 2015;10(11):0143803.
Martin DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Allen B, Johnson AJ, Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT. Use of immunoglobulin m cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States, Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;(9):544–49.
Murad Alahdal, Jamal Al-Shabi, Mahmoud Ogaili1, Qais Yusuf Abdullah Said Alghalibi, Aisha O. Jumaan, Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany. Detection of dengue Fever virus serotype – 4 by using one-step real-time RT-PCR in Hodeidah, Yemen. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2016;20(3):1–7.
Qais Yusuf Abdullah, Mahmoud Ogaili, Murad Alahdal, Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany. Dengue fever infection in Hodeidah, Yemen: Risk factors and socioeconomic indicators. British Biomedical Bullieten. 2015;3(1):58–65: 2015.
Qassem MA, Jaawal AA. Dengue fever or West Nile virus outbreak? Yemen, International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;1(21):457.
Corwin A, Habib M, Olson J, Scott D, Ksiazek T, Watts DM. The prevalence of arboviral, rickettsial and Hantaan-like viral antibody among schoolchildren in the Nile river delta of Egypt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical medicine and Hygiene. 1992;86(6):677-9.
Mweene-Ndumba I, Siziya S, Monze M, Mazaba ML, Masaninga F, Songolo P, Mwaba P, Babaniyi OA. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus specific IgG and IgM antibodies in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. African Health Sciences. 2015;15(3):803-9.
Gibney KB, Colborn J, Baty S, Patterson AM, Sylvester T, Briggs G, Stewart T, Levy C, Komatsu K, MacMillan K, Delorey MJ. Modifiable risk factors for West Nile virus infection during an outbreak — Arizona, 2010. The American Journal of Tropical sMedicine and Hygiene. 2012;86(5):895-901.
Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2000;6(4): 319.
Calistri P, Giovannini A, Hubalek Z, Ionescu A, Monaco F, Savini G, Lelli R. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. The open Virology Journal. 2010;4:29.
Ernek E, Kozuch O, Nosek J, Teplan J, Folk C. Arboviruses in birds captured in Slovakia. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology. 1977;21(3):353-9.