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Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality and it is endemic in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in four communities (Agbura, Otakeme, Otuagela and Otuokpoti) in Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria using Filtration and Sedimentation technique. Snails collected were identified by the shape of their outer shell. Basic statistics method and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Out of the 276 urine samples examined, 36 (13.0%) tested positive for Schistosoma haematobium. The age- related infection showed that the age-group 10-14 years (26.9%) had the highest rate of infection, followed by 5-9 years 7 (19.4%). Age-group 50 years and above had a zero infection rate. Sex - related infection showed that an overall prevalence rate of 71.6% was recorded among males and 39.4% for females indicating that infection was higher in males than in females in all the communities; In Otuokpoti, males 8(33.3%) to females 5 (15.1%), In Otakeme, males had 6 (12.8%) than females 5 (15.6%), in Otuagela males had 7 (16.7%) than females 2 (8.7%) and in Agbura males had 3 (8.8%) than females 1 (9.1%). Primary school children had the highest 16 (21.9%) while retired civil servants had 0(0.0%). The difference was significant. Bulinus globosus was the only snail intermediate host identified in both ponds and streams. Human water contact activities observed around the water bodies were recreational activities (washing, bathing, fishing) and harvesting of freshwater snails. Variance (ANOVA) of the age- specific prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in the four communities showed no significant difference at P<0.05 (P=0.082) among sampled population and also no significant difference at P<0.05 (P=0.55) across the infected population in the four communities.
In conclusion, urogenital schistosomiasis is still prevalent and remains a public health challenge in Ogbia, Bayelsa state. It is strongly recommended that health education and provision of safe water should be stepped up as a control measure of the infection in the area.
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