Main Article Content
Background/Introduction: Health workers at primary health care facilities (PHCs) are primarily involved with routine immunization activities including detection, reporting and management of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI). To undertake such responsibilities effectively, they need to have good knowledge on AEFI and its management.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and reporting practices of Routine Immunization Service Providers in health facilities of Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 285 routine immunization service providers were recruited from all the PHCs in one selected local government from each of the three health zones of the State. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from eligible participants. Data were entered into SPSS version 20.0 and analyzed.
Results: Of the 285 distributed questionnaires, 258 (90.5%) were duly completed and returned. The M: F ratio was 1.4:1, with mean age of 34.24 + 8.06 years. Up to 164 (63.6%) respondents had good knowledge (score >50%), while 37(14.3%) and 57(22.1%) respondents had fair (score 41-49%) and poor (score <40%) knowledge respectively. Reporting practices were appropriate in 224 (86.8%) respondents. The most common method for reporting was by manual filing of AEFI forms. Some respondents would however not report an AEFI to avoid being blamed, feeling guilty or creating unnecessary anxiety to the patient.
Conclusion: Though many respondents had good knowledge and reporting practices on AEFI, knowledge gap still exists; highlighting the need for continuous on-the-job training and retraining of these personnel.
(Accessed March, 2017)
Andre FE, Booy R, Bock HL, Clemens J, Datta SK, John TJ, et al. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bulletin World Health Organization. 2008;86(2):140-146.
(Accessed September, 2017)
Ehreth J. The global value of vaccine. Vaccine. 2003;21:596-600.
UNICEF. Building trust and responding to Adverse Events Following Immunisation in South Asia: Using strategic communica-tion. Unicef Regional office, South Africa. 2005;1-57.
Bloom DE, Canning D, Weson M. The value of vaccination. World Economics. 2005;6:15-39.
Maduka O, Tella A, Tobin A, Akpan M. Caregiver experiences with the introduction of pentavalent vaccines in two centers in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2015;6(11):1086-1095.
Thomas BT, Onwu N, Kolawole RM, Makanjuola SO, Davies A, Popoola OD. Does Menafri-Vac® Triggers adverse reaction following immunization? Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2015; 23(3):387-393.
Khazaei S, Rezaeian S, Razani M, Zahiri A, Saatchi M, Khazaei S, et al. Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) in children under 7- year of age during 2014 in Hamedan Province, Iran. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;4(5):1697-1703.
Nnenna TB, Davidson UN, Babatunde OI. Mothers’ knowledge and perception of adverse events following immunization in Enugu, South- East, Nigeria. Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination 2013;4:202.
Mehta U, Milstien JB, Duclos P, Folb PI. Developing a national system for dealing with adverse events following immune-zation. Bulletin World Health Organization. 2000;78(2):170-177.
Duclos P, Bentsi-Enchill A. Current thoughts on the risks and benefits of immunization. Drug Safety. 1993;8:404-413.
Owino L, Irimu G, Olenja J, Meme J. Factors influencing Immunization coverage in Mathare Valley, Nairobi. East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(7).
Yaqub O, Castle-Clarke S, Sevedalis N, Chataway J. Attitudes to vaccination: A critical review. Social Science and Medicine. 2014;112:1-11.
Alvarez-Pasquín M J, Heijbel H, Yarwood J, Van Damme P, VACSATC partner. VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication): Why Such A project? Eurosurveillance. 2009;14(16): 1-4.
[Accessed: February, 2017]
Freed GL, Clark SJ, Hibbs BF, Santoli JM. Parental vaccine safety concerns. The experiences of pediatricians and family physicians. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004;26(1):11-4.
Masika CW, Atieli H, Were T. Knowledge, perceptions and practice of nurses on surveillance of adverse events following childhood immunization in Nairobi, Kenya. Biomedical Research International; 2016. (Accessed on March, 2017)
Harden VA. National Institutes of Health celebrating 100 year of medical progress. In: Bernstein E, editor. Medical and health annual. Chicago. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1918;158-76.
Parella A, Braunack-Mayer A, Gold M, Marshall H, Baghurst P. Healthcare providers’ knowledge, experience and challenges of reporting adverse events following immunisation: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research. 2013;13 (1):313–325.
Swarnkar M, Baig VN, Soni SC, Shukla US, Ali J. Assessment of knowledge and Practice about immunization among health care providers. National Journal of Community Medicine. 2016;7(4):281285
Aderibigbe SA, Osagbemi GK, Bolarinw OA. Adverse event following immunization in a Nigerian tertiary health institution Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2010;1(3):496-499. (Accessed February, 2017)
Ogunyemi RA, Odusanya OO. A survey of knowledge and reporting practices of primary healthcare workers on adverse experiences following immunisation in alimosho local government area, Lagos. Nig Postgrad Med J. 2016;23:79-85.
Mohammed LA, Aliyu AA, Maiha NN, Isa A. Knowledge, perception and reporting attitude of adverse effects following immunization among primary health workers in Sabon gari local government area, Zaria, Kaduna State. Nigeria Journal of Basic and Clinical Science. 2018;15: 81-86.
Ibrahim T. Sample size determination. In: Research methodology and dissertation writing for the health and allied health professionals. 1st edition. Abuja: Cress Global links ltd. 2009;70-75.
Muchekeza M, Chimusoro A, Nomagugu N, Kufakwanguzvarova WP. Adverse event following immunization (AEFI) surveillance in Kwekwe district, midlands province, Zimbabwe, 2009-2010. Journal of Vaccines and vaccination. 2014;5:232.
Hu Y, Li Q, Lin L, Chen E, Chen Y, Qi X. Surveillance for adverse events following immunization from 2008 to 2011 in Zhejiang Province, China. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2013;20(2):211-7.
Ouandogo CR, Yameogo TM, Diomande FV, Sawodogo C, Ouedraogo B, Ouedraogo-Traore R. Adverse events following immunization during mass vaccination campaigns at first introduction of a meningococcal a conjugate vaccine in Burkina Faso. Vaccine. 2012;30(2):46-51.
MOH Sri Lanka. National Guidelines on Immunization Safety surveillance: surveillance of adverse Events Following Immunization, Epidemiology Unit, Ministry of Health, Srilanka; 2012.
Tanzania. The United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare: Guidelines for surveillance of adverse events following immunization. 1st edition. 2014;P1-63.
Erlewyn-Lajeunesse M, Hunt LP, Heath PT, Finn A. Anaphylaxis as an adverse event following immunisation in the UK and Ireland. Archives of Diseases in Childhood. 2012;97:487-90.
WHO. Vaccine Safety Basics e-learning manual. Geneva, Switzerland; 2013b.
(Accessed March, 2017)
Bisetto LH, Cubas RM, Malucelli A. Nursing practice in view of adverse events following vaccination Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2011;45(5): 1128- 34.
Clothier HJ, Crawford NW, Kempe A, Buttery J. Surveillance of Adverse events following immunization: The model of SAEFVIC, Victoria. Communi- cable Diseases Intelligence. 2011;35(4): 295=299.
Waldman EA, Luhm KR, Monteiro SA, Freitas FR. Surveillance of adverse effects following vaccination and safety of immunization programs. Revista de Saude Publica. 2011;45(1):173-184.
WHO. Immunization safety surveillance. Guidelines for immunization program managers on surveillance of adverse events following immunization. Second edition. WHO (Western Pacific Region), Geneva – Switzerland. 2013c;P1-112.