International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal run by SDI.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2278-1005 Covid 19: Determination of the Relationship between Sex, Having Handkerchief or Staying Indoor and Facial Touch <p><strong>Background:</strong> Covid-19 outbreak is the current pandemic confronting nations in the world. The virus had caused so much loss of lives, loss of jobs and serious damages to global economy. One major way of preventing the spread of the virus and guide against being infected is to avoid face touching with unwashed hand(s).</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study is to investigate the association between sex, having handkerchief or staying indoor and number of time a person touches face (mouth, eyes or nose).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A sample size of n = 130 people were randomly selected and observed obliviously for 120 seconds. The number of times they touched their faces were recorded with other variables like sex, having handkerchief and staying indoor or outdoor. Since the response variable is count, appropriate models for such data were used.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> The Poisson results shown that there exist overdispersion, hence, a model that can account for the dispersion parameter was used to obtain accurate results. The results of the analysis shown that there is no association between the number of time a person touches face and sex, having handkerchief or staying indoor. The expected number time people touch their faces within 120 seconds is twice while the minimum and maximum number of times are zero and eight respectively.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> It is recommended that there ought to be adequate public enlightenment and sensitization on the peril of the novel COVID-19 pandemic and the reason why individuals ought to stick carefully to the exhortation of abstaining from touching of faces (without washing with soap and water) so as to forestall its spread. If a person's hands are contaminated with the virus, he/she isn't infected until he/she touches the face (nose, eye or mouth) with the hands unwashed.</p> S. A. Aderoju S. S. Ajewole O. S. Balogun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 1 6 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i530273 Fever Cases Associated with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection among Children Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Imo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a major cause of fever in endemic countries, although the prevalence of malaria has been declining across Sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of clinical presentation attributable to febrile illness due to malaria to febrile illnesses have remained high. It is therefore important to determine the proportion of fever cases attributable to malaria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among children aged 1-72 months presenting at a tertiary facility in Imo state Nigeria from 1<sup>st </sup>March, 2014 to 31<sup>st </sup>October, 2015.</p> <p>Children between 1-72 months of age with documented fever at presentation or history of fever in the last 24 hours without signs of severe malaria and those without any history of anti-malarial drugs administration were considered eligible. Fever was regarded as axillary temperature of ≥37.5°C. For all subjects (febrile and afebrile), the presence of <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>was assessed microscopically by a WHO Certified malaria microscopist. Malaria parasite density was grouped as 1-1000, 1001–10000, and &gt;10,000 parasites/µl respectively according to World Health Organization guidelines for grouping malaria parasitamae while data was analysed using SPSS 20.1v.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall malaria prevalence of both febrile and afebrile at point of assessment but with history of fever in the last 24 hours was 24.3%. Prevalence by microscopy was 26% among the 289 children who were febrile as at point of examination. There was no significant difference (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) between malaria prevalence in males as against females.</p> <p>Age group 49-72 months had the highest prevalence (42.6%), while age groups 25-48 and 1-24 months recorded prevalence of 35.7% and 25%, respectively (P&lt;0.05). About 22.5% of afebrile patients had positive <em>Plasmodium </em><em>parasitaemia</em><em>. </em>The Geo-mean (range) of parasitaemia was 1427(8-180,000) parasite/µl while mean body temperature ± SD was 37.0±0.9°C. About 8% of the children had high parasite density.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>although linked with majority of fever is not the cause of fever in all instances. Healthcare providers should make more effort to correctly diagnose non-malaria febrile cases so as to optimize clinical outcomes for the patients and minimize possible over diagnosis and overtreatment of malaria.</p> C. I. Okoro F. C. Ihenetu K. E. Dunga K. Achigbu C. C. Obasi K. K. Odinaka E. S. Anikwo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 7 14 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i530274 Prophylactic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medicinal plants are now becoming indispensable in the treatment and management of many ailments. The unaffordability, unavailability and adverse effects of conventional therapy in the treatment and management of many diseases have geared keen interest in the use of herbal medicine. This work was carried out to investigate the prophylactic effect of the ethanol extract of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of one hundred (100) rats were randomized into four (4) groups (n=25) and used for the study. Each group of 25 rats was sub-divided into five (5) groups (n=5). The sub-groups comprise: Group A-normal control that was not treated, group B-100 mg/kg body weight of metformin and groups C to E - graded doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the ethanol leaf extracts of <em>A. indica</em> leaves. The standard drug and the extracts were consecutively administered to groups B-E for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days before the induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally using 50 mg/kg bodyweight of streptozotocin.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The groups that were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw of ethanol extract of <em>A. indica </em>showed a significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) increase in their weight after 21 and 28 days of pre-treatment compared with the control group that was not treated. The graded doses of the extract also have a remarkable effect in the fasting blood glucose levels which was made visible by the significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) reduction recorded in the fasting blood glucose levels compared with the control group that was not pre-treated and the group pre-treated with metformin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results obtained in this research suggest that ethanol extract of <em>A. indica</em> has the potential to protect against diabetes by delaying its onset. However, the longer the period of pre-treatment, the better the condition of the animals pre-treated as well as the protection as can be seen from the results of the weight and fasting blood glucose levels.</p> O. C. Ezeigwe C. J. Ononamadu M. E. Onuegbu O. R. Ikpeogu I. C. Agugom F. A. Ejiofor U. E. Ezeokoye U. H. Cornel-Ilokolobia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 15 27 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i530275 Potential Risk Factor for Malaria Infection in Banjarnegara, Indonesia: A Matched Case-control Study <p><strong>Context:</strong> This research is performed in Banjarnegara, an endemic malaria area in Indonesia. Considering the incidence of malaria in Indonesia in the last ten years, it is essential to assess the potential risk factors to maintain the cases and to accelerate malaria elimination.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study examined the potential risk factors from the human socio-economic aspect and human behavior for malaria cases.</p> <p><strong>Settings and Design:</strong> This is a match case-control study conducted in 34 cases and 34 controls in Banjarmangu Subdistrict, Banjarnegara, Indonesia. The subjects for the two groups were based on the routine report of Banjarmangu I public health center from July 2017–March 2018. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the subject.</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis:</strong> Logistic regression was used to seek the association among the variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This research found that installing wire netting, not sleeping under a bed net, and consuming higher transportation costs were significant protective factors for malaria cases. Having lower family income was significant as a potential risk factor for malaria cases (OR=10.68, CI = 1.01-112.59).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study may explain that economic income was the essential aspect of malaria prevention as it contributed to the other health issues, such as health-seeking behavior.</p> Sulistyawati Sulistyawati Rokhmayanti Rokhmayanti Maririn Devi Pradita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 28 35 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i530276