Intestinal Helminthiases among School Children in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones of Chad: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Kemba Samafou *

Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box-812, Yaoundé, Cameroon and Laboratory of Medical Parasitology and Mycology of the Health and Human Sciences, University of N'Djamena, P.O. Box-1117, N’Djamena, Chad.

Nack Jacques

Laboratory of Animal Biology and Physiology, University of Douala, P.O. Box-2701, Douala, Cameroon.

Oyono Martin Gaël

Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box-812, Yaoundé, Cameroon and Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies, P.O. Box-13033 Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Hamit Mahamat Alio

Laboratory of Medical Parasitology and Mycology of the Health and Human Sciences, University of N'Djamena, P.O. Box-1117, N’Djamena, Chad.

Bilong Bilong Charles Félix

Laboratory of Parasitology and Ecology, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box-812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile of intestinal helminthiases in school children in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Chad.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional and descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: September 2021 to February 2022 in two of Chad's three ecological zones: the Sudanian and Sahelian zones.

Methodology: A total of 1408 stool samples were collected from school children (aged from 5 to 18 years) in 19 schools; 13 of which were in the Sudanian zone and 6 in the Sahelian zone. The analysis of these samples was carried out by the Kato-Katz method, for the detection and quantification of intestinal helminths eggs.

Results: Analysis of these samples revealed the presence of 9 helminths taxa, with an overall infestation rate of 35.87% in both zones. Ascaris lumbricoides (16.41%), Schistosoma mansoni (14.00%) and Hymenolepis nana (6.53%) were the most common helminths found. Pupils in the Sudanian zone were relatively more infested than those in the Sahelian zone, except for Taenia saginata and Ascaris lumbricoides which were more often found in the Sahelian zone. With the exception of Enterobius vermicularis, no other difference in infestation rates was observed between age groups. By gender, the only significant difference in infestation rates was noted for Schistosoma mansoni for which girls were more parasitized.

Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of these parasitoses in Chad and that poor hygiene favors the endemicity and persistence of these helminthiases; it also points to the need for a national helminthiases control program.

Keywords: Intestinal helminths, prevalence, Sahelian zone, Sudanian zone, Chad, pupils


How to Cite

Samafou, K., Jacques, N., Gaël, O. M., Alio, H. M., & Félix, B. B. C. (2022). Intestinal Helminthiases among School Children in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones of Chad: Prevalence and Risk Factors. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 43(21), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i211359

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