Enteric Parasitosis of HIV-positive Patients in Cameroon: A Case of the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam (Western Region)

Roméo Tankoua-Tchounda *

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

Jacques Nack

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

Christian Mbohou Nchetnkou

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

Désiré Leonard Keptcheu Tchankwé

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, , Dschang, P. O. Box-067Cameroon.

Michel Lontsi-Demano

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, , Dschang, P. O. Box-067Cameroon.

Estelle Essangui

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

Alex Kevin Tako Djimefo

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

Léopold Gustave Lehman

Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, P. O.-24157, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Objectives: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes a progressive alteration of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to infectious agents. A few studies have been done on gastrointestinal parasites in HIV-infected persons in Cameroon. However, these studies need to be updated. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in relation to associated factors in HIV+ patients at the Bafoussam Regional Hospital.

Methods: The study was conducted from May to December 2021 on 240 patients aged from 3 to 73 years. Stool samples were tested for parasites and HIV viral loads were assessed in blood samples.

Results: The analyses revealed that 58 (24.2%) patients were carriers of at least one parasite species. A total of 7 parasite species were identified, the most predominant being Entameba histolytica (12.62%) followed by Cryptosporidium spp (4.54%). A high majority, 91.3% had undetectable viral loads with the presence of intestinal parasitosis. However, the most infested patients were those with viral loads above 50 copies/ml. Concerning the duration of antiretroviral treatment, the rate of infestation was higher in patients with less than 12 months on treatment (OR=2.8; p=0.04). The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in those under 20 years of age (OR = 5.13; p = 0.03). The distribution of gastrointestinal parasite species according to viral loads varied significantly for Blastocystis hominis and Dicrocoelum dendriticum with p<0.05.

Conclusion: The presence of these parasites reveals that people living with HIV should be regularly screened and treated to improve their health status.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal parasitosis, HIV positive, viral load, bafoussam, Cameroon


How to Cite

Tankoua-Tchounda, R., Nack, J., Nchetnkou, C. M., Tchankwé, D. L. K., Lontsi-Demano, M., Essangui, E., Djimefo, A. K. T., & Lehman, L. G. (2022). Enteric Parasitosis of HIV-positive Patients in Cameroon: A Case of the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam (Western Region). International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 43(24), 6–18. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i241374

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