Home Management Practices among Caregivers on Malaria Treatment in Primary Healthcare Centre Amansea, Anambra State, Nigeria

P. U. Umeanaeto

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

C. M. Adione

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

S. C. Afulukwe

Department of Anatomy, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

J. U. Anumba

Department of Public Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases Units, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.

J. C. Akulue

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

I. S. Okwelogu

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

K. C. Irikannu *

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Malaria is a major cause of fever in children. When a child has fever, parents or caregivers commonly treat them as if they were affected by malaria, with available medicines at home, with or without proper information or guideline. This study was carried out to explore the effectiveness of the various home management practices on malaria treatment among caregivers in Primary Health Care Center Amansea, Awka North L.G.A, Anambra State between May and August 2021. Mothers and caregivers (N=200) visiting the facility and their children (N=200) were involved. Blood specimens were collected through venipuncture and analyzed by microscopy while data on management practices were collected using pretested, structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 25.0. Mothers and caregivers had good knowledge of the correct cause (70.0%), symptoms (63.0%) and preventive measures (53.5%) of malaria. Sources of medical treatment ranged from doctors (43.0%) to herbalist (13.5%) and 80% of them seek medical treatment within 24 hours of onset of fever. Caregivers preference of home treatment of malaria to hospital is greatly influenced by a lot of reasons with high cost of hospital bills (53.5%) being the highest reason among many. Prevalence of malaria among the mothers and caregivers was 36(18.0%) which was dependent on their age (X2=44.629, df=3, P=0.000) and educational status but not with occupation. However, malaria prevalence among the children was 50(25%) even though it was not significant in relation to age and sex of the children (P>0.05). The effectiveness of home management of malaria depends on the early diagnosis, prompt and appropriate use of health facilities for treatment of malaria symptom especially fever. Therefore, health programmes and special campaigns to enlighten mothers and caregivers on more of the dangers of delayed treatment for their children could help to improve their treatment seeking pattern.

Keywords: Mothers, caregivers, malaria, home management, treatment

How to Cite

Umeanaeto , P. U., C. M. Adione, S. C. Afulukwe, J. U. Anumba, J. C. Akulue, I. S. Okwelogu, and K. C. Irikannu. 2023. “Home Management Practices Among Caregivers on Malaria Treatment in Primary Healthcare Centre Amansea, Anambra State, Nigeria”. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 44 (17):10-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2023/v44i171469.


Download data is not yet available.


World Health Organization - WHO. World Malaria Report 2019 at a glance. Regional and global trends in burden of malaria cases and deaths; 2019.

United States Agency for International Development- USAID. USAID President’s Malaria Initiative FY 2020 Nigeria Malaria Operational Plan; 2020.

Uzochukwu BS, Ezeoke OP, Emma-Ukaegbu U, Onwujekwe OE, Sibeudu FT. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review. Nigerian Medical Journal. 2010;51: 114-119

Ahmed LA, Akinboboye O, Ilesanmi OS, Oguntuase DA. Home management of malaria among caregivers of under-five children in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Health Social Sciences. 2017;2(3):309-322

Tiono AB, Kaboré Y, Traoré A, Convelbo N, Pagnoni F, Sirima SB. Implementation of Home-based management of malaria in children reduces the workload for peripheral health facilities in a rural district of Burkina Faso. Malaria Journal. 2008; 7:201

Getahun A, Deribe K, Deribew A. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study. Malaria Journal. 2010; 9:320.

Arute JE, Odili VU. Home Based Management of Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria in Children Below Five Years in Delta State. Galician Medical Journal. 2019;26(1). Available:https://doi.org/10.21802/gmj.1.726.

World Health Organization - WHO. Nigeria launches the implementation of Malaria eradication fund; 2021. Available: https://www.afro.who.int/news-room/facct-sheets/detail/malaria

Talipouo A., Ngadjeu CS, Doumbe-Belisse P. Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers. Malaria Journal 2019;18: 167. Available: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2799-6

NPC/FRN. Population Census of Nigeria, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Population distribution in Local Government Areas by sex and number of Households. Legal Notices on publication of the details of the breakdown of the National and State Provisional population census totals. Official Gazette. 2006;94(24).

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 1. Examination of blood for malaria parasite. Cambridge Low-Price Edition. 2006;239-258.

Adepoju EG, Onajole AT, Oreagba IO, Odeyemi KA, Ogunnowo BO, Olayemi SO. Health education and caregivers' management of Malaria among under-fives in Ede North L.G.A., Osun State of Nigeria. 2006;49(4).

Fawole OI, Onadeko MO. Knowledge and home management of malaria fever by mothers and care givers of under five children. West African Journal of Medicine. 2001;20(2):152-157.

Chukwuocha U. Rapid assessment of home management of malaria among caregivers in parts of south eastern Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2011;10(29):1-7.

Okafor LP, Odeyemi KA. Home management of malaria by care givers of under-five children in an urban area in Lagos, Nigeria. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2009;19 (1).

Obiukwu M, Egbuche C, Okonkwo NJ, Chukwuma I, Ugwuanyi I, Umeanaeto PU. Malaria: Home Management Practices of Caregivers in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State of Nigeria. Natural and Applied Sciences Journal. 2011;12(2):190-196.

Beyeler N, Liu J, Sieverding M. A Systematic Review of the Role of Proprietary and Patent Medicine Vendors in Healthcare Provision in Nigeria. Plos One. 2015;10(1):e011716

Webster P. Drug shops as primary point of care—the case of Nigeria. Lancet. 2017;390(10089):15-17.

Uguru NP, Onwujekwe OE, Tasie NG., Uzochukwu BS, Ezeoke UE. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio¬ economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:7.

Iwuafor AA, Egwuatu CC, Nnachi AU, Ita IO, Ogban GI, Akujobi CN, et al. Malaria Parasitaemia and the use of insecticide-treated nets (INTs) for malaria control amongst under 5-year-old children in Calabar, Nigeria. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):151.

Odu BP, Mitchell S, Isa H, Ugot I, Yusuf R, Cockcroft A, et al. Equity and seeking treatment for young children with fever in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study in Cross River and Bauchi States. Infect Dis Poverty. 2015;4(1):1.

Federal Ministry Ministry of Health. National Antimalarial Treatment Policy. Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Health National Malaria and Vector Control Division; 2005.


Adedokun ST, Adekanmbi VT, Uthman OA, Lilford RJ. Contextual factors associated with healthcare service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria. Plos One 2017;12 (3):e0173578.

Birhanu Z, Abebe L, Sudhakar M, Dissanayake G, Yihdego YY, Alemayehu G. Malaria Related Perceptions, Care Seeking after Onset of Fever and Anti-Malarial Drug Use in Malaria Endemic Settings of Southwest Ethiopia. Plos One. 2016; 11(8):e0160234.

Kassam R, Sekiwunga R, MacLeod D, Tembe J, Liow E. Patterns of treatment-seeking behaviors among caregivers of febrile young children: a Ugandan multiple case study. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16(1):160.

Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey [NMIS]. Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey (NMIS) Atlas of Key Indicators. Final Report National Malaria Elimination Programme Federal Ministry of Health Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria; 2015.

Ayamolowo SJ, Olaoye AS, Ayamolowo LB. Mothers' knowledge and practices associated with managing malaria in children under five in Nigeria. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2018;12(2).