Iodine Status of School Children Aged 6 to 12 Years in Rural and Urban Communities in Imo State, Southeast Nigeria

Tochi Izuagba

Department of Paediatrics, Federal University Teaching Hospital Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Emeka Nwolisa *

Department of Paediatrics, Federal University Teaching Hospital Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Fidelis Njokanma

Department of Paediatrics, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Iodine is a trace element essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which in turn play a crucial role in the growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. Iodine deficiency is therefore a serious medical condition fraught with dire consequences. Median urinary iodine concentrations of 100–199 mcg/L in children and adults, 150–249 mcg/L in pregnant women and >100 mcg/L in lactating women indicate iodine intakes are adequate.

Objective: This study set to determine the Iodine status of children aged 6-12 years using MUIC in selected urban and rural communities of Imo state, South East Nigeria.

Methods: It was cross sectional in nature and was carried out between July 2018 and January 2019. It involved 386 children aged 6-12 years who were selected from primary schools in both urban and rural local areas within the three educational zones of Imo State. Their urinary Iodine concentration was assayed using Ammonium persulphate technique of the Sandell- Koltkoff reaction method.

Results: The median urine iodine concentration (MUIC) in the study participants ranged from 65 – 490 mcg/l with a median of 160mcg/l. While median urine iodine concentrations (MUIC) of 160 mcg/L and 156mcg/L, respectively, were observed in urban-dwelling and rural-dwelling school children respectively. Of the 386 participants, 30 had a MUIC of < 100\(\mu\)g/L therefore giving an iodine deficiency prevalence of 7.8%. They consisted of 14 participants from the urban areas and 16 from the rural areas. The difference between MUIC of children in rural and urban areas of Imo state was not statistically significant . (χ2 = 0.10: p = 0.75).

Conclusion: While there was Iodine deficiency prevalence of 7.8%, there was no statistically significant difference between the Iodine status of pupils in urban and rural areas of Imo state.

Keywords: Urinary Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Rural, Urban Imo state


How to Cite

Izuagba , T., Nwolisa , E., & Njokanma , F. (2023). Iodine Status of School Children Aged 6 to 12 Years in Rural and Urban Communities in Imo State, Southeast Nigeria. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 44(21), 8–15. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/23/v44i211490

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Universal salt iodization (USI) in Nigeria. Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) [internet].

Accessed 2017 March 30. Available:www.gainhealth.org..

Manzano J, Bernal J, Morte B. Influence of thyroid hormones on maturation of rat cerebellar astrocytes. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2007;25:171-9.

Dhaar G.M, Robbani I. foundations of community medicine. India Nutritional problems of mother and children. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012;19:144- 419.

Doggui R, El AtiHellai M, El Ati J. Current status of urinary iodine analysis and its clinical interest. Ann Bio Clin 2016;74:184-95.

International Council for the control of iodine deficiency disorder (ICCIDD); August 31, 2011. [internet].

Accessed 2017 April 23. Available:http:// www.unicef.org

Pearce E.N, Anderson M and Zimmerman M.B. Global Iodine Nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013. Thyroid. 2013;23:523-28.

Food fortification critical to food security in Nigeria – Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition.

Accessed May 13 2017. Available:https://www.unicef.org

Sanusi RA, Ekerette NN. Nutrition and goiter status of primary schoolchildren in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2009; 12:37-41.

Onyeaghala AA, Anetor JI, Nurudeen A, Oyewole OE. Assessment of urinary iodine status of primary school children in Saki, Southwestern Nigeria. Bull Envir. Pharm Life Sci. 2012;5-9.

Anyiam JO, Ogunride GO, Raji T, Abdulkadir I, Yusuf R. Urinary iodine levels, goiter rates and intelligence quotient in primary school children in Giwa Local Government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Obes Metab Res. 2015;2:135-9.

Abua SN, Olufunmike AA, Rasaki S. Adequacy of dietary iodine in two local government areas of Cross River State in Nigeria. Pak J Nut. 2008;7:40-3.

Onyekwelu K, Ezeagu I, Igbedioh S. Iodine nutrition of schoolchildren residing in area of local non-iodized salt production. Indian J Health Sci and Bio Res Kleu. 2016;9:250-63.

Nwamarah JU, Otitoju O, Otitoju GT, Emewulu CU. Iodine and nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in a Nigeria community Okpuje, Nsukka LGA, Enugu State Nigeria. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2015;7:80.

Weeks RJ. Defining Urban Areas [internet]. (Cited 2017 May 11). Available:https//www.geog.sdsu.edu

Sample Size Table from The Research advisors, copyright; 2006.

Accessed online October 2017. Available:www.research-advisors.com/tools/sampleSize.htm

Oyedeji GA. Socio-economic and cultural background of hospitalized children in Ilesha. Nig J Paed. 1985;12:111-7.

Azubuike CM, Elo Ilo JC, Egbuonu I, Ebenebe JC, Uche V. Emerging high iodine levels among primary school children: The South-east Nigeria experience. IOSR-JDMS. 2021;7:40-46.

Zimmerman M, Trumbo P. Iodine advances in Nutrition. 2013;2:262-64.

Laillou A, Sophonneary P, Kuong K, Hong R, et al. Low urinary iodine concentration among mothers and children in Cambodia. Nutrients. 2016;8:172.

Subhan F, Jahangir M, Saira S, Khattak R, Haq M. Prevalence of goiter and iodine status among 6 – 12 years school children in district Kohat Pakistan, Southeast Asia J of Pub Health. 2014;4:42-46.

Olasinde TY, Adesiyun Omotayo, Olasebikan R, Olasinde A, Ibraheem R, Bilaminu AS. Areola E. Ernest S. Urinary iodine levels of primary schoolchildren in Ilorin Nigeria. Sanamed. 2020;15:21-23.

Mehdi Z, Amini A, Bidarpoor F, Tamimi M. A. survey of factors related to urine levels in elementary schoolchildren in Kurdistan Iran. Chron Dis J. 2013;1:30-5.

Hamzah Z, Azlina N, Mazlina L, Untong N. Analysis of urinary iodine level of school children aged 8 to 10 years in Perak. Accessed May 10th, 2022. Available:https://www.academia.edu/33561449

Konrade I, Neimane L, Markrecka M, Strele I, Liepinsh E, et al. A cross sectional survey of urinary iodine status in Latvia. Medicina. 2014;56:124-9.

Leitre JC, Keating E, Pestana D, Fernandes VC, Maia ML, et al. Iodine status and iodized salt consumption in Portuguese schoolchildren: The Iogeneration study. Nutr. 2017;9:458.

Chandwani HR, Shroff BD. Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine status in six to twelve-year-old rural primary schoolchildren of Bharuchi District India. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3:54-9.