National Surveillance Data on the Epidemiology of Meningitis in Niger, 2005 - 2020

Alkassoum S. I. *

Département de Santé Publique, Université Abdou Moumouni, FSS, Niamey, Niger.

Abdoulaye Z.

Département de Santé Publique, Université Abdou Moumouni, FSS, Niamey, Niger.

Goni A.

Département de Santé Publique, Université de Zinder, Niger.

Amadou O.

Université Dan Dicko Dan Koulodo, Maradi, Niger.

Djibo A.

Département de Santé Publique, Université Abdou Moumouni, FSS, Niamey, Niger.

Emoud T.

Hopital Général de Référence, Niamey, Niger.

Ibrahim M. L.

Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire, Niamey Niger.

Adeossi E.

Département de Médecine et Spécialités Médicales, Université Abdou Moumouni, FSS, Niamey, Niger.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Bacterial meningitis is a major public health problem, especially in low-income countries. We analyzed national surveillance data and isolates from Niger to describe the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis from 2005 to 2020.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of nationwide case-based surveillance data of all reported meningitis cases in Niger from 2005 to 2020. Modified case definition was used to classify the cases.

Results: A total of 47,953 suspected meningitis cases and 3,276 deaths (CFR=6.83%) were reported, corresponding to an incidence of 189.01 cases per 100,000 population. The male represented 55.41% ( sex-ratio male : female = 1.30) and 40.52% were 5 -14 y. A total of 29,998 cases were reported through RNL, of which 10,979 (36.60%) were confirmed, of which 6,149 (56.01%), were confirmed by culture. The predominant organism identified was N. meningitidis serogroup A (33.91%). All regions reported meningitis cases and a consistent and substantial reduction was seen in confirmed NmA cases, with no cases occurring in the country after the completion of mass campaigns. Nevertheless, other pathogen species and Nm variants, including NmX, NmC, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, have become more prevalent.

Conclusion: Increased surveillance of multiple serogroups throughout is necessary, as well as consideration of vaccination with combination vaccines rather than just using a single strain as is currently the case with NmA.

Keywords: Bacterial meningitis, surveillance, epidemiology, outbreaks, Niger


How to Cite

Alkassoum S. I., Abdoulaye Z., Goni A., Amadou O., Djibo A., Emoud T., Ibrahim M. L., & Adeossi E. (2024). National Surveillance Data on the Epidemiology of Meningitis in Niger, 2005 - 2020. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 45(2), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i21514

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