Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Malaria Infections, and High Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Levels among Individuals at the Rivers State University, Nigeria: Findings of a Free Medical Outreach

Ibioku Elekima *

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Barinaaziga Sunday Mbeera

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

ThankGod Prince Ohaka

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Chidimma Anthonia Azike

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Onyemaechi Collins Micah

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Easter Godwin Nwokah

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Onyemaechi Uchechukwu

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Vivian Nkemkanma Agi

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Amarachi Bridget Ibuchim-Owabie

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Science, College of Medical Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Chinyere Omereji-David

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ollor Amba Ollor

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Helen Waribo

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ibitoroko George-Opuda

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Adline Ben-Chioma

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Tombari Pius Monsi

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Co-morbidity of infections and non-infectious diseases is increasing in developing societies with little effort in identifying these trends. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, malaria infections, and high serum prostate-specific antigen levels among individuals and residents at Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Experimental Design: The study is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which consisted of 501 participants in a free medical outreach organized by the Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria, Rivers State University Chapter, Rivers State, Nigeria, in commemoration of the 2022 International Biomedical Day. The test subjects consisted of males and females, who were students, staff, and residents at the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The age range of the test subjects was 18-64 years.

Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study encompassed 501 adults (males and females) who gave consent for their blood screening during our free medical outreach. As a procedure, venous blood specimens were collected at the antecubital fossa from the attendees by venipuncture technique and were screened forH. Pylori antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, malaria parasite, and prostate-specific antigen with the use of Accu-Tell rapid diagnostic test kits. Each test was read within 10 minutes. Red lines on the test zone and control zones of the test kits were read and recorded as positive cases, while a red line on the control zone and the absence of a red line on the test zone of the test kit were read, and recorded as negative case, in line with the rapid diagnostic manufacturer’s instructions.

Results: Out of a total of 501 participants, the prevalence of H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, and prostate-specific antigen were 9 (1.79 %), 3 (0.6 %), 12 (2.40 %), 6 (4.65 %%) respectively. The sex-based comparison showed that males have the same prevalence for all infectious diseases (H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, and P. falciparum) of 3 (2.32 %), and 6 (4.65 %) for a prostate-specific antigen. For the females, the prevalence of H. pylori, M. tuberculosis and P. falciparum were 6 (2.20 %), 0 (0.00 %), and 9 (2.42 %) respectively.

Conclusion: M. tuberculosis prevalence was observed to be greater in the males than in the females of the studied population while that of H. pylori was observed to be higher in the females than the male participants. So continuous screening of the public to monitor and prepare them against the insurgence of these diseases which are of public health concern is important.

Keywords: H. pylori, malaria parasite, mycobacterium tuberculosis, prostate specific antigen, rivers state, prevalence


How to Cite

Elekima , I., Mbeera , B. S., Ohaka , T. P., Azike , C. A., Micah , O. C., Nwokah , E. G., Uchechukwu , O., Agi , V. N., Ibuchim-Owabie, A. B., Omereji-David, C., Ollor , O. A., Waribo , H., George-Opuda , I., Ben-Chioma, A., & Monsi , T. P. (2024). Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Malaria Infections, and High Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Levels among Individuals at the Rivers State University, Nigeria: Findings of a Free Medical Outreach. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 45(2), 10–18. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i21515

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Mac PA, Asheadzi HF, Gideon A, Thaker P, Airiohuodion P. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among nigerians in Abuja and central states: A comparative analysis of sensitivity and specificity using rapid diagnostic test and microscopy as tools in management of malaria. International Journal of Tropical Disease. 2019;1:14.

Mayo Clinic. Helicobacter pylori infection; 2022. Available:https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/h-pylori/symptoms-causes/syc-20356171.

de Brito BB, da Silva FA, Soares AS, Pereira VA, Santos ML, Sampaio MM, Neves PH, de Melo FF. Pathogenesis and clinical management of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2019;25(37): 5578–5589.

Abbas H, Niazi M, Makker J. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the colon: A Case Report and a Literature Review. The American Journal of Case Reports.2017;18: 491–497.

Nocturne G, Pontarini E, Bombardieri M, Mariette X. Lymphomas complicating primary Sjögren's syndrome: From autoimmunity to lymphoma. Rheumatology, Oxford, UK. 2019; 60(8):3513–3521.

Hooi JK, Lai WY, Ng WK, Suen MM, Underwood FE, Tanyingoh D. Global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(2):420–429.

WHO. Global tuberculosis control: Surveillance, planning, Finance. WHO/CDS/2002.295. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2022.

Barberis I, Bragazzi NL, Galluzzo L, Martini M. The history of tuberculosis: From the first historical records to the isolation of Koch’s bacillus; 2017. Availableat:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432783/pdf/2421-4248-58-E9.pdf

Ugwu KO, Agbo MC, Ezeonu IM. Prevalence of tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis and Hiv/Tb co-Infection in Enugu, Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Disease. 2021;15(2):24-30.

WHO. World Malaria Report; 2018. Available:https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/en/.

WHO. Gearing towards a TB free Nigeria- WHO and partners scale up action; 2021. Available:https://www.afro.who.int/news/gearing-towards-tb-free-nigeria-who-and-partners-scale-action

WHO. Report on malaria in Nigeria; 2022. Available:https://www.afro.who.int/countries/nigeria/publication/report-malaria-nigeria-2022.

Gething PW, ElyazarI R, Moyes CL, Smith DL, Battle KE, Guerra CA. Along-neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;6(9):e1814. DOI:10.137/journal.pntd.0001814

WHO.Worldmalariareportfactsheet;2014. DOI:www.who.int/malaria/pubication/world-malaria-report-2014/en/.

WHO. A global strategy for malaria control, Geneva; 2010. DOI:www.who.int/malaria/publication/media/world-malaria-report-2010/en.

Nwaneli EI, Eguonu I, Ebenebe JC, Osuorah CD, Ofiaeli OC, Nri-Ezedi CA. Malaria prevalence and its sociodemographic determinants in febrile children - A hospital-based study in a developing community in South- East Nigeria. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene.2020;61(2): 173-180.

Breman JG. Ears of the hippopotamus: Manifestations, determinants, and estimates of the malaria burden.American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2001;64:1-11.

Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer Journal of Clinics. 2020;70(1):7-30.

Collins A, Ehimen PO. Age-specific serum prostate-specific antigen references range among healthy men in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A retrospective hospital-based study. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences.2018;6(2):417.

Michael KD, Stephen WL. Prostate Specific Antigen. Treasure Island (FL):Stat Pearls Publishing; 2023.

Aisuodionoe-Shadrach OI, Eniola SB, Nwegbu MM, Kolade-Yunusa, HO, Okereke OO, Yunusa, T. Determination of serum prostate specific antigen levels Amongst apparently healthy nigerian males in a university and university hospital community in the federal capital territory. Cancer Control. 2022; 10732748221081366. DOI: 10.1177/10732748221081366.

Abah AE, Udoidang IN. Co-infection of malaria and hepatitis B virus in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Infection, 2019; 6(4):e97033.

Abah AE, Awi-Waadu GD, Nduka FO, Richard A. Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2017;21(2): 299-304.

Ogbo FA, Ogeleka P, Okoro A. Tuberculosis disease burden and attributable risk factors in Nigeria,Tropical Medicine and Health.2018;46(34):1990–2016.

Otokunefor K, Otokunefor TV, Omakwele G. Multi-drug resistantMycobacterium tuberculosisin Port Harcourt, Nigeria. African Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2018;7(2):805.

Obioma A, Ngozika WG. Investigation of prevalence of tuberculosis infection outcome in two government owned hospitals in Port Harcourt, Niger Delta. Journal of Tuberculosis Therapy.2018;3:114.

Ayodele MB, Aaron UU, Oluwatayo GA, Wariso KT. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among suspected peptic ulcer patients in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. Gazette Medicine. 2017;6(1):601–606.

Ayodele MB, Aaron UU, Oluwatayo GA, Wariso KT. Prevalence of Helicobacter pyloriinfection in Port Harcourt using antibody diagnostic technique. International Journal of Innovative Healthcare Research. 2018;6(1): 24-28.

Maarten CB, Oluwarotimi SN, Adekoyejo AP, Charles CA, Oluyemi A,Ima-Obong AE, Ima-Abasi EB, Vikas M, Virgilia M, Theodorus H, Adam, BM. Prevalence of prostate cancer at autopsy in Nigeria—A preliminary report. The Prostate.2021; 81(9): 553-559.

Ntekim A, Folasire A, Odukoya OA. The prevalence of prostate cancer among young men below 55years of age in Nigeria.Cancer Control. 2023;30.