The Socioeconomic Impact: Assessing the Risk and Burden of Malaria on Vulnerable Populations in Kenya

Thomas Opiyo Okumu *

P.O. BOX 7340 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This paper seeks to explore the significance and impact of malaria on Kenya’s economic growth. This will help to understand the impact that malaria has or have had on household economic status especially for the vulnerable population in Kenya and how it has been unfolding slowly over time. This will also seek to understand the coping strategies adopted by the said population and the negative implications that have influenced these household’s abilities to withstand malaria and other eventualities that may happen in the future.

The risk and burden of malaria on vulnerable population together with its economic effects have been presented. Search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed as well as related economics and medical journals were instrumental for this study. To protect the poor and vulnerable population against these adverse effects of malaria and from malaria itself, there is a great need to draft and enact policies that will be able control the effects as well as integration development and poverty reduction programs. The future work and focus for government and all stakeholders should be to focus more energy and work on achievable health services that will eliminate the burden of health especially malaria and its effects on Kenyan economic activities undertaken by the vulnerable population and to address the burden and risk of malaria on the productive under privileged within their environment, as well as study the epidemiological and socio-economic geographical dissimilarities of the vulnerable population and the normal population.

Keywords: Malaria, socio-economic, risk, burden, Kenya

How to Cite

Okumu , T. O. (2024). The Socioeconomic Impact: Assessing the Risk and Burden of Malaria on Vulnerable Populations in Kenya. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 45(2), 19–29.


Download data is not yet available.


WHO. World malaria report 2015. 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva, 27, Switzerland; 2015.

Fana S, Bunza M, Anka S. Prevalence and risk factors associated with malaria infection among pregnant women in a semi-urban community of north-western Nigeria. Infect Dis Poverty. 2015; 4:4–8.

Elnour Z, Grethe H, Siddig K, Munga S. Malaria control and elimination in Kenya: Economy wide benefits and regional disparities. Malaria Journal. 2023;22:117.

WHO. World malaria report. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2014.

WHO. World malaria report 2021. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.

WHO. The Africa malaria report. 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland; 2003.

Oladeinde BH, Omoregie R, Olley M. Malaria and anemia among children in a low resource setting in Nigeria. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7:31–7.

Halliday KE, Okello G, Turner EL. Impact of intermittent screening and treatment for malaria among school children in Kenya: A cluster randomized trial. PLoS Med. 2014;11:1-16.

Kepha S, Nikolay B, Nuwaha F. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria among school children living in a high transmission setting in western Kenya. Malar J. 2016;15: 1–13.

Juma E, Dejan Z. Changes in health workers, malaria diagnosis and treatment practices in Kenya. Malaria Journal. 2011;10:1.

Degefa T, Yewhalaw D, Zhou G, Lee M, Atieli H, Githeko AK, Yan G. Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: Implications for better understanding of residual transmission. Malaria Journal. 2017;16:443.

Mugo P, Onsomu E, Munga B, Nafula N, Mbithi J, Owino E. An assessment of healthcare delivery in Kenya under the devolved system. Special Paper No 19. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis; 2018.

U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative Kenya Malaria Profile Kenya malaria profile. 2022;1– 26.

Division of National Malaria Programme. Kenya Malaria Programme: Mid-Term Review. Nairobi: Kenya Ministry of Health; 2022.

Amboko B, Stepniewska K, Macharia PM, Machini B, Bejon P, Snow RW. Trends in health workers’ compliance with outpatient malaria case management guidelines across malaria epidemiological zones in Kenya, 2010–2016. Malar J. 2020;19:406.

Chima R, Goodman CA, Mills A. The economic impact of malaria in Africa: A critical review of the evidence. Health Policy. 2003;63:17-36.

Gallup L and Sachs D. The economic burden of malaria. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2001;64(2):85-96.

Tanner M, Vlassoff C. Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria: A typology based on endemicity and gender. Soc Sci Med. 1998;46:523-532.

Goodman C, Coleman P, Mills A. Economic analysis of malaria control in Sub-Saharan Africa. Global forum for health research: Promoting research to improve the health of the poor, Geneva, Switzerland; 2000.

Chuma J, Okungu V, Molyneux C. The economic costs of malaria in four Kenyan districts: Do household costs differ by disease endemicity? Malaria Journal. 2010;9:149.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). Economic survey 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.

Yerushalmi E, Hunt P, Hoorens S, Sauboin C, Smith R. Exploring the use of a general equilibrium method to assess the value of a malaria vaccine: An application to Ghana. MDM Policy Pract. 2019;4: 2381468319894345.

Ayieko P, Akumu AO, Griffiths UK, English M. The economic burden of inpatient paediatric care in Kenya: Household and provider costs for treatment of pneumonia, malaria and meningitis. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2009;7:3.

Bello-Bravo J, Dannon E, Agunbiade T, Tamo M, Pittendrigh BR. The prospect of animated videos in agriculture and health: A case study in Benin. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2013;9(3):4.

Chege SM, Wang D. The impact of technology transfer on agribusiness performance in Kenya. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management. 2020;32(3):332-348.

Onyia VU, Ughasoro MD, Onwujekwe OE. The economic burden of malaria in pregnancy: A cross-sectional study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020;33: 92–5.

Endo N, Yamana T, Eltahir EA. Impact of climate change on malaria; 2017.

Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Elobolobo E, Nacima A, Candrinho B, Saifodine A. The economic burden of malaria on households and the health system in a high transmission district of Mozambique. Malar J. 2019;18:360.

Shretta R, Avancena AL, Hatefi A. The economics of malaria control and elimination: A systematic review. Malar J. 2016;15:593.

Sicuri E, Vieta A, Lindner L, Constenla D, Sauboin C. The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya. Malar J. 2013;12:307.

Hailu A, Lindtjorn B, Deressa W, Gari T, Loha E, Robberstad B. Economic burden of malaria and predictors of cost variability to rural households in south-central Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185315.

Andrade MV, Noronha K, Diniz1 BPC, Guedes G, Carvalho LR, Silva VA, Calazans JA, Santos AS, Silva DN, Castro MC. The economic burden of malaria: A systematic review. Malaria Journal. 2022;21:283.

Head MG, Goss S, Gelister Y, Alegana V, Brown RJ, Clarke SC. Global funding trends for malaria research in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e772–81.

Botto-Menezes C, Bardaji A, Dos Santos CG, Fernandes S, Hanson K, Martinez- Espinosa FE. Costs associated with malaria in pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a low endemic area where Plasmodium vivax predominates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004494.

Mbonye AK, Neema S, Magnussen P. Preventing malaria in pregnancy: A study of perceptions and policy implications in Mukono district, Uganda. Health policy and planning. 2006;21(1):17-26.

Moreno-Gutierrez D, Rosas-Aguirre A, Llanos-Cuentas A, Bilcke J, Barboza JL, Hayette MP. Economic costs analysis of uncomplicated malaria case managementin the peruvian amazon. Malar J. 2020;19:161.