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Aim: Schistosomiasis is a water-borne trematode infestation and is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosomiasis can affect any organ. This case report highlights the importance of awareness of unusual cause of common surgical presentations of schisto-somiasis in endemic areas and the need for appendectomy specimens to be sent for histological review so that patients can benefit from full investigations and specific antiparasitic treatment.
Case Presentation: In this paper, the authors present a case of appendicular schistosomiasis that was incidentally discovered in a 33-year-old female patient from Lagos, Nigeria who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Appendectomy specimens removed from the patient appeared macroscopically normal but histopathological analysis revealed schistosomal eggs confirming the diagnosis of appendicular schistosomiasis.
Discussion: Confirmation of appendicular schistosomiasis is a purely histological diagnosis, because there are no pathognomonic clinical or operative findings. Physicians practising in the endemic areas must be aware of the possibility of seeing atypical presentations of parasitic diseases.
Conclusion: The authors therefore strongly recommend that all appendectomy specimens should be sent for histological review so that patients can benefit from full investigations and specific anti-parasitic treatment.