Spatiotemporal Trend of Waterborne Disease in Enugu Urban, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

Main Article Content

Onyekachi J. Okpasuo
Fabian C. Okafor
Ifeanyi Aguzie
Chika Ikele
Joy Anunobi


Many water sources in Nigeria are contaminated with pathogens. Several towns have witnessed outbreaks of enteric diseases due to poor hygienic standards of available drinking water. This research was undertaken to determine the spatiotemporal trends of waterborne diseases (WBDs) in Enugu, Nigeria using retrospective records from January 2013 to December 2016. A total of 18,495 individual reported cases of WBDs were analysed. The analysis showed an increasing temporal trend from 2013 to 2015, with a slight decrease in 2016. Typhoid fever had the highest frequency (48.9%) followed by diarrhoea (40%) and then dysentery (11.1%). The highest (88.9%) incidence of waterborne diseases per 10,000 peoples was from Enugu North followed by Enugu South (62.6%) and least was Enugu East (44.4%). Highest occurrence of typhoid fever and dysentery per 10,000 peoples was also found in Enugu North while Enugu East had the highest occurrence of diarrhoea in the four-year trends. WBDs were highest between January and March and least in July. The months with peak occurrence of WBDs falls within the dry season. The importance of having drinking water in both quality and quantity cannot be overestimated as portrayed in this study. Drinking water quality in Enugu urban is very poor especially during the dry season. This suggests a need for setting up a modality to tackle challenges of limited water supply during the dry seasons of the year and to educate the populace on household water treatment and storage method.

Drinking water, dysentery, typhoid fever, waterborne, diarrhoea

Article Details

How to Cite
Okpasuo, O. J., Okafor, F. C., Aguzie, I., Ikele, C., & Anunobi, J. (2019). Spatiotemporal Trend of Waterborne Disease in Enugu Urban, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 38(3), 1-13.
Original Research Article


World Health Organization (WHO). Drug resistance.

Bai T, Shui L, Sun L, Wang J. Application of GIS in response to public health emergency. Strait Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2007;13:75-76.

Montgomery MA, Elimelech M. Water and sanitation in developing countries: Including health in the equation. Environmental Science and Technology. 2007;41:17-24.

United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF). Water and Sanitation Summary Sheet, Seminar Pack for Drinking Water Quality; 2008.

World Health Organization (WHO). Burden of diseases and cost-effectiveness estimates; 2012.

Cebedo E. 100 deaths due to cholera outbreak in Nigeria; 2010.

Smith D. Cholera kills more than 1,500 people in Nigeria. The Guardian; 2010.

Yvan H, Luby S, Paquet C. A large cholera outbreak in Kano city. Nigeria: The importance of hand washing with soap and the danger of street - vended water. Journal of Water and Health. 2003;01.

Chen Q, Han R, Ye F, Li W. Spatio-temporal ecological models. Ecological Informatics. 2011;6:37–43.

Davis GS, Sevdalis N, Drumrigh LN. Spatial and temporal analyses to investigate infectious disease transmission within healthcare settings. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2014;86:227-243.

Oluwatoyin AA. Spatio-temporal analysis of the prevalence of waterborne diseases in Kwara State, Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 2015;62-65.

Chijioke IR, Ilechukwu GC, Ilechukwu GC, Okafor CI, Ekejindu IM, Sridhar MKC. A community based survey of the burden of Ascaris lumbricoides in Enugu. Annals of Medical Health Science Research. 2011;2:165–171.

Ezenwaji EE, Anyadike RNC, Igu NI. Optimal allocation of public water supply to the urban sectors of Enugu, Nigeria: A linear programming approach. Applied Water Science. 2014;4:73–78.

Kotloff LK, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, et al. Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicentre Study, GEMS): A prospective, case-control study. The Lancet. 2013;382: 209-222.

Adeyinka SY, Wasiu J, Akintayo CO. Review on the prevalence of waterborne diseases in Nigeria. Journal of Advancement in Medical and Life Science. 2014;1:2.

Mweetwa P. Typhoid fever outbreak trends from 2009 to 2013, assessment of knowledge and practices among health workers and residents of Luanshya district, Zambia. A Dissertation Submitted to the University of Zambia in Partial Fulfilment of the Award of the Degrees of Master of Public Health in Environmental Health; 2014.

Qureshi MA, Khan AU, Vehra S. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in relation to microbial estimation of potable water in the community residing near River Ravi, Lahore, Pakistan. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2011;5:595-607.

Bashiru I, Asokan C. Spatial and temporal distribution of waterborne diseases in Namanyonyi Sub-County, Mbale District, Uganda. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2016;4:3967-3975.

Olajuyigbe AE, Alinaitwe P, Adegboyega SA, Salubi E. Spatial analysis of factors responsible for incidence of water borne diseases in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Society. 2012;1:96-113.

Chou WC, Wu JL, Wang YC, Huang H, Sung FC, Chuang CY. Modeling the impact of climate variability on diarrhea-associated diseases in Taiwan (1996–2007). Science Total Environment. 2010;409:43–51.

Bhandari GP, Gurung S, Dhimal M, Bhusal CL. Climate change and occurrence of diarrheal diseases: Evolving facts from Nepal. Journal of Nepal Health Resources Council. 2012;10(22):181–6.

Muluken A, Abera K, Alemayehu W, Amvrossios CB. Childhood diarrhoea exhibits spatiotemporal variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan spatial statistical analysis.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Summary for policy-makers. In: Edenhofer OR, Pichs-Madruga Y, Sokona E, Farahani S, Kadner K, Seyboth A, Adler I, Baum S, Brunner P, Eickemeier B, Kriemann JS, Schlömer C, von Stechow T, Minx JC. Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press. 2014;399.

Hoque BA, Hallman K, Levy J, Bouis H, Ali N, Khan F. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: Quality and management. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2006;209:451–60.

Pruss-Ustun A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. Safe water, better health: Cost, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2012.