Seasonal Pattern and Occurrence of Schistosoma haematobium Egg Excretion among Pregnant Women in Munyenge, South West Region, Cameroon

Main Article Content

Godlove Bunda Wepnje
Judith Kuoh Anchang-Kimbi
Leopold Gustave Lehman
Helen Kuokuo Kimbi


Aim: The aim of this study was to describe temperature, precipitation pattern and the occurrence of maternal urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) in Munyenge in 2017.

Study Design: It was a twelve-month cross-sectional study.

Study Site and Duration: The study was carried out in Munyenge from January to December 2017.

Materials and Methods: Volunteer pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic were enrolled consecutively on a monthly basis from January to December 2017. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic data and water contact behaviour. Urine samples were analysed for presence of microhaematuria and/or Schistosoma haematobium ova using filtration method. Monthly land surface temperature (LST) and precipitation were sourced from MODIS and CHIRPS satellite data respectively. Statistical analyses performed were analysis of variance, student t- test and correlation analysis. 

Results: The mean annual temperature was 27.18 ± 0.74°C. Monthly temperatures were fairly constant (range: 26.12 to 28.82°C). Precipitation varied greatly (range: 0.26 - 12.75 mm) with a mean of 6.58 ± 4.5mm. A marginal negative correlation (r = -0.586; P = .04) was observed between stream usage and precipitation where stream usage reduced with increase in precipitation. Generally, there was high dependence on the stream as source of water (60.9 - 90.6%) in the  study area. Dependency on the stream was associated (r = 0.603; P = .03) with domestic and bathing activities. The annual prevalence of maternal UGS was 24.1% (77/320) with a high occurrence during the rainy season (16.6%; 53/320) than the dry season (7.5%; 24/320) but the difference was not significant (χ2 = 2.26; P = .13).  There was no significant difference between months.

Conclusion: Our findings show no seasonal variation in the occurrence of maternal UGS in Munyenge. Transmission of infection may be perennial.

Schistosoma haematobium, pregnancy, LST, precipitation, stream contact behaviour, Munyenge.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wepnje, G. B., Anchang-Kimbi, J. K., Lehman, L. G., & Kimbi, H. K. (2019). Seasonal Pattern and Occurrence of Schistosoma haematobium Egg Excretion among Pregnant Women in Munyenge, South West Region, Cameroon. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 39(1), 1-10.
Original Research Article


WHO Prevention and control of schistose-miasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: Report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Technical Report Series. 2002;912:1– 57.

Van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JD, et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica. 2003; 86:125-39.

King CH, Dangerfield-Cha M. The unacknowledged impact of chronic schistosomiasis. Chronic Illn. 2008;4:65-79.

King CH, Dickman K, Tisch DJ. Reassessment of the cost of chronic helminthic infection: A meta-analysis of disability-related outcomes in endemic schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2005;365:1561–9.

Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014; 383:2253–64.

Kloos H. Human behavior, health education and schistosomiasis control: A review. Society of Science and Medicine. 1995;40:1497–511.

Angelo T, Buza J, Kinung’hi SM, Kariuki HC, Mwanga JR, Munisi DZ et al. Geographical and behavioral risks associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in an area of complex transmission. Parasites & Vectors. 2018;11:481.
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-3064-5

Roberts L, Janovy J. Foundations of parasitology. 5th ed., Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa; 1996.

Xue Z, Gebremichael M, Ahmad R, Weldu ML, Bagtzoglou AC. Impact of temperature and precipitation on propagation of intestinal schistosomiasis in an irrigated region in Ethiopia: Suitability of satellite datasets. Tropical Medicine and Inter-national Health. 2011;16(9):1104–1111.

Parham PE, Michael E. Modeling the effects of weather and climate change on malaria transmission. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:620–6.

Ajakaye OG, Olusi TA, Oniya MO. Environmental factors and the risk of urinary schistosomiasis in Ile Oluji/Oke Igbo local government area of Ondo state. Parasite Epidemiology and control. 2016; 1:98-104.

Appleton CC. Review of literature on abiotic factors influencing the distribution and life cycle of bilharziasis intermediate host snail. Malacology Review. 1978;11:1-25.

Malone JB. Biology-based mapping of vector-borne parasites by geographic information systems and remote sensing. Parassitologia. 2005;47:27–50.

Thieltges D, Jensen K, Poulin R. The role of Biotic factors in the transmission of free-living endohelminth stages. Parasitology. 2008;135:407-426.

Augusto G, Magnussen P, Kristensen T, Appleton C, Vennervald B. The influence of transmission season on parasitological cure rates and intensity of infection after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma haematobium-infected school children in Mozambique. Parasitology. 2009;136(13): 17711779.

Gbalégba N, Silué K, Ba O, Ba H, Tian-Bi NTY, Yapi GY, et al. Prevalence and seasonal transmission of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school- aged children in Kaedi Town, Southern Mauritania. Parasites Vectors 2017;10(1): 353.
DOI: org/10.1186/s13071-017-2284-4

Christensen EE, Taylor M, Zulu SG, Lillebo K, Gundersen SG, Holmen, S, et al. Seasonal variations in Schistosoma haematobium egg excretion in school-age girls in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, South Africa Medicine Journal. 2018;108(4):352-355.

Nwabueze AA, Opara KN. Urinary schistosomiasis among school children in riverine communities of Delta State, Nigeria: Impact of road and bridge construction. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;7(4):572–578.

Opara KN, Udoidung NI, Ukpong IG. Genitourinary schistosomiasis among primary school children in a rural community within the Cross-river basin, Nigeria. Journal of Helminthology. 2007; 81(4):393–397.

Sarkinfada F, Oyebanji AA, Sadiq IA, Ilyasu Z. Urinary schistosomiasis in the Danjarima community in Kano, Nigeria. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2009;3(6):452–457.

Houmsou RS. Profile of a one-year epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Biomedical Sciences. 2012; 1(2).
DOI: 10.3823/1006

Kahama AI, Vennervald BJ, Kombe Y, Kihara RW, Ndzovu M, Mungai P, et al. Parameters associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection before and after chemotherapy in school children from two villages in the Coast province of Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4:335–40.

Allotey P, Reidpath D, Pokhrel S. Social sciences research in neglected trop-ical diseases 1: The ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases. Health Res. Policy Syst. 2010;8:32.

Utzinger J, N’Goran EK, Caffrey CR, Keiser J. From innovation to application: Social-ecological context, diagnostics, drugs and integrated control of schistosomiasis. Acta Tropica. 2011; 120(1):121–137.

Chandiwana SK. Community water contact patterns and the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine. 1987;25:495–505.

Takougang I, Meli J, Fotso S, Angwafo F, Kamajeu R, Ndumbe PM. Some social determinants of urinary schistosomiasis in northern Cameroon: Implications for schistosomiasis control. African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;11(3– 4):111–120.

Scott JI, Daikhate M, Vereeeken K, Fall A, Drop M, Ly A, et al. Human water contact Patterns in S. mansoniepidemic foci in Northern Senegal. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003;8(2):100-108.

Gazzinelli A, Velasquez-Melendez G, Crawford SB, LoVerde PT, Correa-Oliveira R, Kloos H. Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in a poor rural area in Brazil. Acta Trop. 2006;99:260–271.

Codjoea SNA, Larbi RT. Climate change/variability and schistosomiasis transmission in Ga district. Ghana. Climate and Development; 2015.
DOI: 10.1080/17565529.2014.998603

Traore I, Karthe D, Sie A, Coulibaly V, Kappas M. Influence of air temperature on children water contacts with respect to schistosomiasis transmission risk in the Sourou Valley, Burkina Faso. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess. 2016;30:2097–2107.

Ebai CB, Kimbi HK, Sumbele IUN, Jude EY, Lehman GL. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary Schistosomiasis in the Ikata-Likoko Area of Southwest Cameroon. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health; 2016.
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26669

Ndassi VD, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Sumbele IUN, Wepnje GB, Kimbi HK. Prevalence and risk factors associated with S. haematobium egg excretion during the dry season, six months following mass distribution of Praziquantel (PZQ) in 2017 in the Bafia Health Area, South West Region Cameroon: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Parasitology Research; 2019. Available:

Wepnje GB, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Ndassi VD, Lehman LG, Kimbi HK. Schistosoma haematobium infection status and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Munyenge, South West Region, Cameroon following scale-up of communal piped water sources from 2014 to 2017: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health; 2019.
DOI: 10 1186/s 12 889-019

Basco LK, Ngane VF, Ndounga M, Same-Ekobo A, Youmba JC, Abodo RTO, et al. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXI. Baseline therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapies in children before national drug policy change. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75: 388–95.

Ntonifor HN, Green AE, Bopda MOS, Tabot JT. Epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis in a recently established focus behind Mount Cameroon. Inter-national Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(3):1056-1066.

Ntonifor HN, Mbunkur GN, Ndaleh NW. Epidemiological survey of urinary schisto-somiasis in some primary schools in a new focus behind mount Cameroon, South West Region, Cameroon. East African Medicine Journal. 2012;89(3):82-88.

Anchang-Kimbi J, Dillys M, Taiwe GS, Eric A. Coinfection with Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum and Anaemia Severity among Pregnant Women in Munyenge, Mount Cameroon Area: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Parasitology Research; 2017.
DOI: 10.1155/2017/6173465

Bryan FJ. The design and analysis of research studies, university of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1992.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 2006.

Wan Z, Hook S, Hulley G. MOD11A1 MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/ Emissivity Daily L3 global 1km SIN grid V006. 2015, distributed by Nasa EOSDIS LP DAAC.
DOI: ORG/10.5067/MODIS/MOD11A1.006

Funk C, Peterson P, Landsfeld M, Pedreros D, Verdin J, Shukla S, et al. The climate hazards infrared precipitation with stations—A new environmental record for monitoring extremes. Sci. Data. 2015; 2:150066.

Anderson R, May R. Prevalence of schistosome infections within molluscan populations: Observed patterns and theoretical predictions, Parasitology. 1979; 79;63-94.

Stirewalt MA, Fregeau WA, Exp. Parasitol. 1968;22:73.

Tay SCK, Amekudzi LK, Tagoe G. Comparative study of the impact of climate variability on prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis: Cases at Sunyani Regional Hospital and among School Children in Atronie, Sunyani. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. 2011;5(11):1474-1482.

Ivoke N, Ivoke ON, Nwani CD, Ekeh FN, Asogwa CN, et al. Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;31(1): 77–88.

Onwuliri COE, Anosike JC, Oguoma C, Onwuliri VA, Nwoke BEB, Dozie INS, et al. The impact of cultural limitations, local beliefs and practices on emerging parasitic diseases in tropical Africa. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2005;1(2):153-164.

Obi CL, Momba MNB, Samie A, Igumbor JO, Green E, Musie E. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters impinging on the efficiency of small water treatment plants in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa W ater SA. 2007;33:229-237.

Downs JA, Mguta C, Kaatano GM, Mitchell KB, Bang H, Simplice H, et al. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age in Tanzania’s Lake Victoria region. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:364–9.

Zida A, Briegel J, Kabré I, Sawadogo MP, Sangaré I, Bamba S, et al. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urogenital schistosomiasis in women, in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2016;5:81.

WHO. Global Survey of Early Warning Systems; 2004.
[assessed 10.04.2019].

Ugbomoiko US. Seasonal patterns in water contact and transmission of Schistosoma haematobium infection in Ikpeshi, Edo State, Nigeria. Niger. J. Pure Applied Sci. 2004;19:1560-1569.

Ekwunife CA. Socio-economic and water contact studies in Schistosoma haematobium infested area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Anim Res Int. 2004;1:200–2.

Omonijo A, Asaolu S, Ofoezie I. Schistosomiasis transmission and water contact pattern in river Ureje in Ado-ekiti local government area, Ekiti State. Res J Parasitol. 2013;8:26–36.

Pitchford RJ, Visser PS. Some further observations on schistosome transmission in the Eastern Transvaal. Bull World Health Organ 1965;32(1):83-104.

Wilkins HA, Scott A. Variation and stability in Schistosoma haematobium egg counts: A four-year study of Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1978;72(4): 397-404.

Ciddio M, Mari L, Gatto M, Rinaldo A, Casagrandi R. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis. Chaos 2015;25(3): 036405.
DOI: Org/10.1063%2f1.4908202

World Health Organisation. The control of Schistosomiasis (Second Report of WHO Committee. Technical Report Series 830). Geneva: WHO; 2008.