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Aims: To determine the pattern of ocular disorders in HIV-positive patients in a tertiary ospital in Nigeria.
Study Design: A cross-sectional hospital based study on confirmed HIV positive adult patients attending the HIV clinic in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.
Duration of Study: November and December 2011.
Methodology: Consecutive patients within the inclusion criteria were recruited until the required sample size was met. The visual acuity was tested using the Snellen’s chart and the illiterate E-chart. Ocular examination of the adnexial and anterior segments were done using a pen torch and a slit lamp biomicroscope. Fundoscopy was done using a direct and indirect ophthalmoscope as well as with a 90D lens. Other information such as CD4 count and HIV serotype were retrieved from the patient’s case notes. The data was analysed using EPI-info version 7.0. Statistical methods such as the frequency and chi-square were used to test the significance of association. Level of significance was drawn at P<0.05.
Results: A total of 411 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range was between 18-69 years with a mean age of 36.9 years. There was a female preponderance with a male to female ratio of 1:2. Ocular disorders were seen in 37.1% of patients studied. The commonest manifestation was the ocular adnexial manifestation and conjunctival microvasculopathy ranked highest (15.6%) in this group. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus was seen in 5 (1.2%) patients, presumed squamous cell carcinoma in 12(2.9%) and Kaposi sarcoma in 3(0.7%). Chorioretinitis was found in 12(2.9%), retinal microvasculopathy in 19(4.6%) and maculopathy in 15(3.6%). There was no case of CMV retinitis.
Conclusion: Ocular findings seen in HIV- positive patients were mostly adnexial and occurred in 37% of the study population.
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