Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr 1 Resistance Genes in Post Chloroquine Era in South-South Region of Nigeria

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Tolulope Alade
Ewaoche Sunday Itodo
Ebidor Lawani
Gloria Adie
Mirabeau Youtchou Tatfeng


Malaria, a global health problem especially in the sub-Sahara region has been posing a recurrent problem due to the resistance of the parasites to the available antimalarial drugs despite the preventive measures provided by WHO.

Aims: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of resistance markers in four Niger Delta states of Nigeria, a decade after withdrawal of chloroquine.

Methods: Eight hundred and forty six (846) subjects participated in the study and were distributed as follows, 192(22.7%)  Bayelsa; 218(25.8%) Rivers; 196(23.2%) Edo and 240(28.4%) Delta respectively. Malaria parasite identification was carried out using standard parasitological techniques. Genotyping of the resistance markers Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr 1 was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Our findings revealed that the prevalence of malaria infection in the four Niger Delta states were 78.1%, 68.8%, 62.8% and 58.8% in Bayelsa, Rivers States, Edo and Delta respectively. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of malaria within the four Niger Delta states. (P>0.05). Children below the age of 5 years recorded the highest infection rates when compared to subjects in other age groups (P< 0.01). Our findings also revealed that the distribution of mutant Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr 1 genes across the four states were 12.0% and 28.6%, 4.0% and 22.0%, 14.6% and 29.3%, 10.6% and 25.0% in Bayelsa, Rivers, Edo and Delta state respectively. However, the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T in Rivers State was statistically lower when compared to other states (P < 0.01) while no statistical difference existed in the distribution of Pfmdr 1 mutant genes (P>0.01).

Conclusion: Prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr 1 remained elevated in the Niger Delta states despite the withdrawal of chloroquine over a decade ago. Hence, Nigeria is far from an eventual re-introduction of chloroquine as its resistance markers still persist in our communities. Furthermore, the root cause of the persistence of these resistance markers needs to be investigated.

Post chloroquine era, Pfcrt K76T, Pfmdr1, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

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How to Cite
Alade, T., Sunday Itodo, E., Lawani, E., Adie, G., & Youtchou Tatfeng, M. (2019). Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr 1 Resistance Genes in Post Chloroquine Era in South-South Region of Nigeria. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 39(3), 1-11.
Original Research Article


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