Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Seropositive HIV and HBsAg Cases among Women Booking for Antenatal Care at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Main Article Content

P. A. Awoyesuku
D. A. Macpepple
B. O. Altraide
D. H. John


Background: Infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are global public health problems. These infections during pregnancy increase the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, and also pose a risk to the fetus due to mother to child transmission.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of seropositive HIV and HBsAg cases amongst pregnant women at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH).

Methodology: A retrospective review of hospital and laboratory records of all pregnant women booked at RSUTH in two years, from May 2017 to April 2019, was carried out. Data on patients’ age, parity and educational level and reactivity of HIV and HBsAg test at booking were retrieved using structured proforma and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7. Test for significance using Chi-square was set at a significant level of P<0.05.

Results: 3560 patients had HIV and HBsAg screening out of which 148 (4.2%) and 9 (0.3%) respectively were positive. The comorbidity rate in this study was 0.06%. The mean age was 31.5±4.7 years and the mean gestational age at booking was 22.1±6.8 weeks. There was no significant relationship between their age (χ2 = 2.690, p-value=0.442) and parity (χ2 = 3.759, p-value = 0.145) with HIV seropositivity, but these were significant for HBsAg (χ2 = 13.691, p-value = 0.003) (χ2 = 13.121, p-value=0.001).  Educational status was significant for HIV (χ2 = 16.188, p-value=0.000) but not for HBsAg (χ2 = 0.229, p-value=0.892).

Conclusion: The seroprevalence rate of HIV and HBsAg in this study were low. HIV seroprevalence was significantly affected by lower education, while HBsAg seroprevalence was significantly affected by younger maternal age and nulliparity. Continued screening of pregnant women for these infections remains valuable and further community-based studies to identify risk factors are recommended.

HIV, HBsAg, prevalence, demographic correlates, pregnancy, Rivers State.

Article Details

How to Cite
Awoyesuku, P. A., Macpepple, D. A., Altraide, B. O., & John, D. H. (2019). Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Seropositive HIV and HBsAg Cases among Women Booking for Antenatal Care at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 40(1), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Eke AC, Eke UA, Okafor CI, Ezebielu IU. Prevalence correlates and pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen in a low resource setting. Virol J. 2011;8:12.

Uneka CJ, Duhlinska DD, Igbinedion EB. Prevalence and public health significance of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Southern Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:328-35.

Oladeinde BH, Omoregie R, Olley M, Anunibe JA. Prevalence of HIV and anaemia among pregnant women. North Am J Med Sci. 2011;3:548-51.

Thumbiran NV, Moodley D, Parboosing R, Moodley P. hepatitis B and HIV co-infection in pregnant women: Indication for routine antenatal hepatitis B virus screening in a high HIV prevalence setting. S Afr. Med J. 2014;104(4):307-9.

Frank-Peterside N, Okonkwo OI, Okerentugba PO, Jaja N. Detection of HIV 1 and 2 antibodies among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. World Applied Sciences Journal 2012;16(4):589-598.

Zaba B, Calvert C, Marston M, Isingo R, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Lutalo T, et al. Effect of HIV infection on pregnancy-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: secondary analyses of pooled community-based data from the network for Analysing Longitudinal population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA). Lancet. 2013; 381(9879):1763-71

Calvert C, Ronsmans C. HIV and the risk of direct obstetric complications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e74848.

McIntyre J. Mothers infected with HIV: Reducing maternal death and disability during pregnancy. British Medical Bulletin. 2003;67:127-135.

Graham W, Hussein J. Measuring and estimating maternal mortality in the era of HIV/AIDS. Workshop on HIV/AIDS and adult mortality in developing countries. New York: Population division; 2003.

Montgomery KS. Childbirth education for the HIV-positive women. J perinat Educ. 2003;12:16-26.

UNAIDS. Countdown to zero: Global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDs; Geneva; 2011.

Mbaawuaga EM, Enenebeaku MNO, Okopi JA, Damien JG. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection among pregnant in Makurdi, Nigeria. Afr. J Biomed Res. 2008; 11:155-159.

Alrowaily M, Abolfotouh MA, Ferwanah MS. Hepatitis B Virus seroprevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:70-72.

Elsheikh RM, Daak AA, Elsheikh MA, Karsany MS, Adam I. Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in pregnant Sudanese women. Virol J. 2007;4:104-106.

Uyer Y, Cabar C, Balci A. seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in Northern Turkey. Hepatitis Monthly. 2009;9:146-149.

El-Magrahe H, Furarah AR, El-Figih K, El-Urshfany S, Ghenghesh KS. Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Tripoli Libya. J Infect. Dis. Dev. Ctries. 2010;4:168-170.

Awole M, Gebre-Selassie S. Seroprevalence of HBsAg and its risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopia J Health Dev. 2005;19:45-50.

Safir S, Levy A. Sikuler E, Sheiner E. Maternal hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus carrier status as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Liver Int. 2010;30(5):765-70.

Borgia G, Carleo MA, Gaeta GB, Gentile I. Hepatitis B in pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(34):4677-83.

Piratvisuth T. Optimal management of HBV infection during pregnancy. Liver Int. 2013; 33(1):188-94.

Oguntola S. Hepatitis: Reason some women have babies with low IQ. Nigerian Tribune. 2008;1.

Yin Y, Wu L, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zhang P, Hou HJ. Identification of risk factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure to prevent vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus. Infect. 2013;66(5):447-52.

Zou H, Chen Y, Duan Z, Zhang H, Pan CJ. Virologic factors associated with failure to passive-active immunoprophylaxis in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Viral Hepat. 2012;19(2):e18-25.

Iyalla C, Omunakwe H, Okoh DA. A retrospective study of the seroprevalence of antibodies to HbsAg, HIV-1/2 and Syphilis amongst pregnant women at booking in a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2016; 15(6):86-92.

Federal Ministry of Health. Technical report on the 2008 National HIV seroprevalence sentinel survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Nigeria. Department of Public Health. National AIDS/STI Control Programme, Abuja. Nigeria; 2010.

Imade P, Ibadin K, Eghafona N, Enabulele O, Ophori E. HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in Benin City, Nigeria. Maced J Med Sci. 2010;15:43-5.

Oladeinde BH, Omoregie R, Oladeinde OB. Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Saudi J Health Sci. 2013;2:113-7.

Esan AJ, Omitsakin CT, Ojo-Bola T, Owoseni MF, Fasakin KA, Ogunleye AA. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(1):11-15.

Mbamara SU, Obiechina NJA. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among antenatal clinic attendees in a private specialist hospital in Onitsha Southeast Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2010; 51(4):152-154.

Alegbeleye JO, Nyengidiki TK, Ikimalo JI. Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in a hospital based population in South-South, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2013;5(5):241- 246.

Buseri F, Seiyaboh E, Jeremiah Z. Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria. J. Global Infectious Dis. 2010;2:203-211.

Pennap GR, Osanga ET, Ubam A. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;5(2):80-82.

Emmanuel OO, Ifeanyi OT. Seroprevalence of HBsAg//HIV among Pregnant Women Attending State Hospital Antenatal Clinic, Ijebu-Ode. Malays. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2015;2(3):200-203.