An Overview of Cholera Epidemiology: A Focus on Africa; with a Keen Interest on Nigeria
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health,
Cholera is still a problem in the world today. A huge population of deaths due to cholera disease still occur in Sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria most especially), Asia, the Americas and other developing countries, where approximately 1.7 billion inhabitants are still served by faecally polluted water sources. Approximately, 2.4 billion inhabitants of these areas of the world lack the majorly required sanitary conditions of living. Legros, asserts that, as of 2019, about forty-seven countries of the globe, are still affected by cholera. Raw or undercooked, contaminated seafood, serves as a vehicle for the transmission (especially to non-endemic areas). A Case Fatality Rate of 4.87% was recorded from 34 Local Government Areas of Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Kano and Zamfara state in Nigeria by the 34th week, in 2018, while 298 confirmed cases and 38 deaths (CFR 1.5%) were recorded from three Local Government Areas in two States (Adamawa & Borno) by Epidemiological week 41 in 2019. Cholera in some cases is regarded as a “disease of the poor” because the populations most affected are those that cannot afford to provide the basic health facilities for themselves. For example, waste management systems, and good accommodation with toilet facilities (the living and health conditions of the people) are wanting. In 2017, A Global Roadmap to 2030 was launched by the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC Ending Cholera) to decrease the death rate due to cholera by 90%. By so doing, the disease can be eradicated from at least half of the 47 cholera-affected countries. The objectives of this roadmap are: to fortify health systems, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and to coordinate different ways by which cholera can be controlled in these countries by 2030 (ensuring early detection and prompt response to contain outbreaks). This review aimed to understand the epidemiology of cholera in Nigeria, Africa and the world at large, to access the level of spread, management and preventive measures so far implemented in the endemic regions.
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