A Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) Pandemic, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features and Management Options, Public Health Measures

Main Article Content

Mukoro Duke George

Abstract

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is an unknown corona virus causing COVID-19 disease responsible for the ongoing pandemic affecting over 190 countries, with a mortality rate of about 5%. The high mortality rate resulted from its ability to elicit cytokine storm via non-specific immune response with delay in specific immune response, notably worst in the elderly, HIV, immunocompromised and cancer diseased patients. The article therefore provides frontline health care workers, the opportunity to understand and equip themselves with management options, public health measures used in coping with COVID-19 infections and enables personnel to make quick preparation for Symptomatic COVID-19 infection in-order to reduce mortalities in health facilities. It also provides a summarised teaching material for medical and allied health students around the world.

Methodology: Credible data and information were obtained from the World health organization situation report, Johns Hopkins University Corona Virus resource centre and other notable journal publications. Most information was on public domain.

Results: Clinical features reported include pneumonia, renal dysfunction, hepatobiliary dysfunction and residual tissue damage, especially in the lungs in those that survive. The literature highlights the blood work-up picture (Leucopenia, increased cytokines IL-6, ferritin, Serum creatinine, urea, AST, GGT, ALT and Viremia) and radiological features of the disease. ELISA and RT-qPCR test are required for diagnosis using sputum, or pharyngeal swab, blood, serum, urine and faecal samples which lead to faeco-oral transmission. ELISA/RT-PCR is also required for disease exclusions in co-existing epidemics such as MERS-CoV, SARS-COV and other viral diseases. Treatment modalities employed thus far are trials that have produce results including targeted therapy, anti-retroviral, Favipiravir, Remdesivir, antibody-serum and antimalaria drugs such as chloroquine and quinine which are found among some protocols in African setting and other developing countries. Currently, ongoing preventive measures (face mask, social distancing and hand hygiene, community testing, isolation of confirmed cases and tracking of the exposed, remain the key corner-stone in the management of COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: COVID -19 disease still remain unclear to many scientists and its pandemic still ongoing. There are many research and clinical trials ongoing while some drugs are used off-label in-order to mitigate the damage caused by the virus in Human body. Cytokine storm needs immunomodulators and viral targeted therapy as discussed in-order to reduce tissue damage, and eventually morbidity and mortalities from COVID-19 infections.

Keywords:
COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, corona virus, patho-physiology, prevention

Article Details

How to Cite
George, M. D. (2020). A Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) Pandemic, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features and Management Options, Public Health Measures. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 41(10), 11-21. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1030324
Section
Review Article

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