Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Animals in Ghana (1962 – 2020): A Review

Main Article Content

Papa Kofi Amissah- Reynolds

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This disease remains a significant aetiologic factor in pregnant women and HIV patients. In Sub-Saharan African countries like Ghana, the low antiviral therapy coverage exacerbates the risk of HIV-related mortality resulting from concurrent infections like toxoplasmosis. This paper reviews published data on toxoplasmosis in both humans and animals in Ghana. Serological surveys in humans indicate high prevalence of toxoplasmosis (up to 92.5%) in a cross-section of Ghanaians, including pregnant women and their neonates, blood donors, as well as HIV and eye patients. Limited data from epidemiological surveys also show Toxoplasma infections in four food animals, with the prevalence ranging from 7.5% to as high as 64%. Molecular analyses in animals have also revealed three novel genotypes, TgCkGh1, TgCkGh2 and TgCtGh1. There are, however, no reports in other food animals like dogs, cattle and grass cutters in Ghana. The role of environmental matrices in the epidemiology of the disease also needs to be investigated. There is paucity of data in the Northern part of Ghana, with most reports concentrated on Southern Ghana, thus necessitating nationwide surveys under a ‘One-Health’ concept to inform management of the disease. Policies which mandate screening of expectant mothers and blood donors are recommended to limit disease transmission in Ghana.

Keywords:
Epidemiology, seroprevalence, Ghana, humans, animals, Toxoplasma gondii.

Article Details

How to Cite
Reynolds, P. K. A.-. (2020). Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Animals in Ghana (1962 – 2020): A Review. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 41(14), 20-31. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1430350
Section
Review Article

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