Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Clients towards COVID-19 at Primary Healthcare Facilities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Clement Kevin Edet
Anthony Ike Wegbom
Victor Alangibi Kiri


Introduction: In spite of all the measures introduced to fight the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) in Nigeria by relevant authorities, it is still ravaging the country. This calls for the commitment and responsibility of the citizens in their adherence to all the control measures and guidelines, whose effectiveness is dependent on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). This study investigated the KAP of clients who attended primary healthcare facilities (PHFs) in Rivers State, Nigeria over the period 16th to 20th June 2020. 

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving the clients seeking care at the           public primary healthcare facilities in the 23 local government areas (LGAs) of Rivers State,         Nigeria as respondents. Using descriptive analysis, the results for each of the quantitative variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation, whilst those for the categorical variables were reported as frequency and percentage.  The association between the responses on KAP and demographic characteristics were tested using the Chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with KAP and statistical significance was assessed at P<0.05.

Results: Out of 460 questionnaires distributed, 434 respondents participated in the survey, revealing a 94.3% response rate. The proportion of respondents with moderate and above scores in knowledge, attitude, and COVID-19 related practices are 86.6% (62.9+23.7), 80.6% (57.6+23.0), and 58.0% (30.8+27.2) respectively. Occupation, educational level, and senatorial districts are associated with knowledge and attitude, whilst age and senatorial districts are associated with the level of adherence to preventive practices; knowledge level also has associations with both attitude and practices towards COVID-19.

Conclusion: On the basis of these findings, we suggest public health education programs on COVID-19 should target individuals with low knowledge levels, lower educational attainment, and those residing in the Rivers South-East senatorial zone in the promotion of their messages on COVID-19.

COVID-19, KAP, clients, primary healthcare facility, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Edet, C. K., Wegbom, A. I., & Kiri, V. A. (2020). Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Clients towards COVID-19 at Primary Healthcare Facilities in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 41(15), 66-73.
Original Research Article


World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-94. Available: source/coronaviruse/situationreports/20200423-sitrep-94-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=b8304bf0_4

World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic outbreak situation. Available:

World Health Organization. WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a Pandemic. Available:

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on July 6th, 2020. Available:

Nigeria centre for disease control and prevention. Avaiable:

Nigeria centre for disease control and prevention on; 2020. Available:

Ajilore K, Atakiti I, Onyenankeya K. College students’ knowledge, attitudes and adherence to public service announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for improving future Ebola prevention education programmes. Health Edu J. 2017;76(6):648-60. Epub 2017/10/01. 10.

Tachfouti N, Slama K, Berraho M, Nejjari C. The impact of knowledge and attitudes on adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a case-control study in a Moroccan region. The Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12:52. Epub 2012/09/01.

World Health Organization. Emerging respiratory viruses, including COVID-19: methods for detection, prevention, response, and control. Available:

Bindawa M, Abdulsalam M, Bello A, Ibrahim MI, Usman A, Nasir A et al. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) and misconceptions in the general population of Katsina State, Nigeria; 2020. Available:

Zhou M, Tang F, Wang Y, Nie H, Zhang L, You G, Zhang M. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding COVID-19 among health care workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infec; 2020. Available:

Ogolodom MP, Mbaba AN, Alazigha N, Erondu OF, Egbe NO, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and fears of healthcare workers towards the corona virus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in South-South, Nigeria. Health Sci J. 2020; 1:002.

Zhong B-L, Luo W, Li H-M, Zhang Q-Q, Liu X-G, Li W-T, Li Y. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: A quick online cross-sectional survey. Intl J Bio Sci, 2020;16(10):1745-1752. DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.45221

Erfani A, Shahriarirad R, Ranjbar K, Mirahmadizadeh A, Moghadami M. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: A population-based survey in Iran. [Preprint]. Bull World Health Organ; 2020. E-pub Available:

Rahman A, Sathi NJ. Knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi Internet Users. Electron J Gen Med. 2020;17(5): em245. Available:

Olum R, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR, Bongomin F. Coronavirus disease-2019: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of health care workers at makerere university teaching hospitals, Uganda. Front. Public Health. 2020;8:181. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00181

Alfahan A, Alhabib S, Abdulmajeed I, Rahman S, Bamuhair S. In the era of corona virus: Health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice of hand hygiene in Saudi primary care centers: A crosssectional study. J Commun Hospital Int Med Perspect. 2016;6:32151. DOI: 10.3402/jchimp.v6.32151

Srichan P, Apidechkul T, Tamornpark R, Yeemard F, Khunthason S, Kitchanapaiboon S, et al. Knowledge, attitude and preparedness to respond to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) among the bordered population of northern thailand in the early period of the outbreak: A cross-sectional study. SSRN 3546046; 2020

Ayinde O, Aduroja P, Gbolahan A. A cross-sectional study on oyo state health care workers knowledge, attitude and practice regarding corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DOI: 10.21203/