Malaria Infection and Efficacy of Antimalarials among Persons Patronizing Drugstores for Malaria Treatment in Port Harcourt

Main Article Content

E. L. Augustine–D ’israel
A. E. Abah
E. O. Onosakponome


Background: Monitoring of malaria infection and antimalarial drug efficacy is necessary for effective case management, detection of resistance and control of the disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess malaria infection and the efficacy of antimalarials among persons patronizing drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Whole blood was randomly collected from individuals visiting 24 drug stores for malaria treatment in three different locations in Port Harcourt and analysed using both microscopy and rapid diagnostic techniques.

Results: The overall prevalence of 22.8% was recorded out of 633 participants for (P. falciparum) malaria. Infection was highest in Mile IV (Rumueme) 30.8% followed by Rumuosi, 23.1% and the least was D/Line area, 14.5% out of 221 participants per location respectively. The incidence of malaria in the study area was significantly different (X2 = 16.69; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the intensity of malaria parasite infection in the study areas. Seven types of drugs were purchased to treat perceived malaria. 177 (26.7%) participants purchased coatem, 187 (28.3%) purchased Lonart. The others were Lumartem 133 (20.1%), P.alaxin 83 (12.5%), Amarla by 19 (2.9%) and artesunate by 57 (8.6%). All the antimalarial were purchased by those that tested positive. The most purchased drug was Lonart 11 (34.37%), Lumartem 25 (36.8%) and Malareich 19 (31.3%) in D/Line, Mile IV and Rumuosi cluster areas respectively. There was a significant difference in the antimalarials purchased. Result of Follow up test shows that only 59.6% returned to be tested and they all tested negative.

Conclusion: Malaria preponderance was high among studied subjects, ACT was topmost among antimalarials regularly purchased by the individuals. Conformity to the use of ACT could be said to be impressive though not yet 100%. People who are treated for malaria should be encouraged to undergo a test after treatment for effective case management and detection of resistance.

Malaria infections, antimalarials, efficacy, drugstores.

Article Details

How to Cite
’israel, E. L. A., Abah, A. E., & Onosakponome, E. O. (2020). Malaria Infection and Efficacy of Antimalarials among Persons Patronizing Drugstores for Malaria Treatment in Port Harcourt. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 41(16), 15-22.
Original Research Article


WHO. Malaria Fact Sheet, World Health Organization Publication, WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva; 2020.

WHO. Malaria Fact Sheet, World Health Organization Publication, WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva; 2018.

Aborah S, Akweonogo P, Adjiuik M, Atinga RA, Welaga P, Adengo PB. The use of non-prescribed anti-malaria drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Bogatanga municipality, Northern Ghana. Malaria Journal. 2013;129(2666):475-2875.

Zhao J, Lama M, Korenromp E, Aylward P, Shargie E, Filler S, Komatsu R, Atun R. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria; a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010. PloS one. 2012;7(8).

Ezenduka CC, Ogbonna BO, Ekwunife OI, Okonta MJ, Esimone CO. Drug use pattern for uncomplicated malaria in medicine retail outlets in Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria: Implications for malaria treatment policy. Malaria Journal. 2014a;13(1):243.

Baiden F, Malm K, Bart-Plange C, Hodgson A, Chandramohan D, Webster J, Owusu Agyei S. Shifting from presumptive to test-based management of malaria-technical basis and implications for malaria control in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal. 2014;48(2):112-122.

UNICEF & WHO. Progress on sanitation and drinking water: Update and MDC assessment; 2015. Available:https//

Kyu HH, Georgiades K, Shannon HS, Boyle MH. Evaluation of the association between long-lasting insecticidal nets mass distribution campaigns an child malaria in Nigeria. Malaria Journal. 2013;12(1):1.

WHO. Malaria. Factsheet; 2016. Available: (Retrieved 21st May 2016)

Oyeyemi A, Ogunnowo B, Odukoya O. Response of patent medicine vendors in rural areas of Lagos state Nigeria to antimalarial policy change. African Health Sciences. 2015;15(2):420-428.

Okeke TA, Uzochukwu BS, Okafor HU. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community. Malaria Journal. 2014;5(1):97.

Isiguzo C, Anyanti J, Ujuju C, Nwokolo E, De La Cruz A, Schatzkin E, Liu J. Presumptive treatment of malaria from formal and informal drug vendors in Nigeria. PloS one. 2014;9(10):e110361.

Goodman C, Brieger W, Unwin A, Mills A, Meek S, Greer G. Medicine sellers and malaria treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: What do they do and how can their practice be improved? The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007;77(6):203-218.

Onwujekwe O, Uguru N, Etiaba E, Chikezie I, Uzochukwu B, Adjagba A. The economic burden of malaria on households and the health system in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria. PloS one. 2013;8(11): e78362.

Rusk A, Highfield L, Wilkerson JM, Harrell M, Obala A, Amick B. Spatia distribution and cluster analysis of retail drug shop characteristics and antimalarial behaviors as reported by private medicine retailers in Western Kenya: Informing future interventions. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2016;15(1):1.

Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Antimalarial Treatment Policy. FMOH, National Malaria and Vector Control Division, Abuja – Nigeria.…/sl840/en; 2005.

Magnum IJ, Cundill B, Ezeoke O, Nwala E, Uzochukwu C, Wiseman V, Boadu NY, Amuasi J, Ansong D, Einsiedel E, Menon D, Yanow SK. Challenges with implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests at primary care facilities in a Ghanaian district: A qualitative study. Malaria Journal. 2016;15(1):1.

Demographia. Demographia World Urban Areas, PDF, 11th Edition; 2016.

Gaur K. Sampling in Medical Research. Research Methodology and Biostatistics Health and Medicine, Technology. 2012;86.

Erhabor OO, Azuonwu, Frank-Peterside N. Malaria parasitaemia among long distance truck drivers in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. African Health Sciences. 2012;12(2):98-103.

Abah AE, JOE-Cliff O. Current status of malaria parasite among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2016;20(1): 187–191.

Abah AE, Awi-Waadu GDB, Nduka FO, Richard A. Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2017;21(2): 299-304.

Abah AE, Nduka FO, Amadi Q, Aguocha OC, Nzeji P. Malaria infection among prison inmates of the maximum security prison Borokiri, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Parasitology. 2018;39(2):127-131. DOI:

Okeke EU. Nigerian malaria: The problems and the fight. Malaria Journal. 2012;11(1): 122.

Omole MK, Onademuren OT. A survey of antimalarial drug use practices among dwellers in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 2010;13:1-7.

Tola M, Oreoluwa O, Idowu ET, Iyede EO, Omidiji O, Awolola TS. Antimalarial medicine preference and usage in rural and peri-urban communities in Lagos and Osun states in Southwestern Nigeria. Age. 2017;5(32):23-8.

Peterson I, Eastman R, Lanzer M. Drug-resistant malaria: Molecular mechanisms and implications for public health. FEBS Letters. 2011;585(11):1551-1562.

WHO. World malaria; 2014. Available: (Retrieved 22nd May, 2016)

Olasehinde GI, Ojurongbe DO, Akinjogunla OJ, Egwari LO, Adeyeba AO. Prevalence of malaria and predisposing factors to antimalarial drug resistance in Southwestern Nigeria. Research Journal of Parasitology. 2015;10(3):92-101.