Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Imo State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Main Article Content

Ugonma Winnie Dozie
Chikere Ifeanyi Casmir Ebirim
Ijeoma Christabel Ekeh
Chinelo Judith Ezelote
Okorie Onyinye Mary
Nneka Eleano Asuzu
Ikechukwu Nosike Simplicius Dozie

Abstract

Introduction: Breast cancer is among the leading causes of death among women globally. Its mortality and morbidity are highest in Africa despite the low prevalence. Sadly, breast screening has never been taking seriously in this region thus rendering management of the disease difficult. The study is designed to determine the knowledge and practice of breast screening among rural women in Imo State, Nigeria.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage sampling technique to select 258 women from a sampled households. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using mean scores and percentages.

Results: The result showed that 87.3% of the women was aware of breast cancer and the dominant sources of information on the disease were radio/television (91.0%), internet (88.0%), friends (85.0%) and newspapers/magazines (79.0%). It was further found that most (83.7%) of the women knew that breast cancer affected only the breast, 76.7% knew that breast cancer can be detected by breast self-examination and screening. Also, 96.1% of the women knew that breast cancer affects only women while 84.9% knew it can only be detected in the hospital/clinic. On the practice of breast screening, the majority (79.5%) of the women indicated they had not been screened whereas only 5.0% had been screened. However, the result revealed that breast self-examination (92.3%) was the most popular screening method among the women followed by clinical breast examination (7.8%).  It was also found that 79.5% of the women had been screened more than once in a year whereas 15.5% were not sure the number of times they had been screened.

Conclusion: The study concludes, that in spite of the awareness and high knowledge of breast cancer and importance of screening in the area, the practice of breast screening among the women was very low. It is therefore, recommended sensitization campaigns on breast screening be intensified in rural areas.

Keywords:
Breast cancer, knowledge of cancer, screening practice, rural women, information sources, Imo State, Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dozie, U. W., Ebirim, C. I. C., Ekeh, I. C., Ezelote, C. J., Mary, O. O., Asuzu, N. E., & Dozie, I. N. S. (2020). Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Imo State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, 41(16), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i1630362
Section
Original Research Article

References

Sylla BS, Wild CP. Cancer burden in Africa in 2030: Invest today and save tomorrow. African Journal of Cancer. 2012;4:1–2. DOI: 10.1007/s12558-012-0199-4 Available:http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_AnnexA.pdf

Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F et al. GLOBOCAN 2008: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide, IARC Cancer Base No. 10. Lyon, France; 2010. Available:http://globocan.iarc.fr

Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Dunn NAM, Muller JM, Pyke CM, Baade PD. The descriptive epidemiology of female breast cancer: an international comparison of screening, incidence, survival and mortality. Cancer Epidemiology. 2012; 36:237–248.

Forouzanfer MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: A systematic analysis. Lancet. 2011;378: 1461–1484.

Shin HR, Boniol M, Joubert C, Hery C, Haukka J, Autier P. Secular trends in breast cancer mortality in five east Asian populations: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. Cancer Science. 2010;101(5):1241–1246.

Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, Ward EM. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiology Biomark Preview. 2010; 19(8):1893–1907.

Ekwnife OI, Aguwa CN. Ameta-analysis of prevalence rate of hypertension in Nigerian populations. Journal of Public health and Epidemiology. 2011;3:603-607.

Okonofua F. Attitudes towards breast cancer in Nigeria: the way forward. Paper presented at the 20th Anniversary of the Breast Cancer Association of Nigeria (BRECAN); 2019.

Nnebue CC, Umeh U. Breast cancer awareness, knowledge and screening uptake among female secondary school teachers in Owerri, Nigeria. Journal of Cancer and Tumor International. 2018;7(4):1–13.

bu_Helalah MA, Alshraideh HA, Al-Sherhan AA, Kawaleet M. Knowledge barriers and attitudes towards breast cancer mammography screening in Jordan. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015;16(9):3981–3990.

Omotara B, Yahya S, Amodu M, Bimba J. Awareness, attitude and practice of rural women regarding breast cancer in northeast, Nigeria. Community Medicine and Health Education. 2012;2:5. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0711.1000148

Tayo OG, Tolupe AA, Olonade O. Knowledge and attitudes about breast cancer among women: A wake-up call in Nigeria. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2019;7(10):1700-1705.

Kerlinger F. Foundations of behavioural research (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston; 1986.

Juszcyzyk D, Simon AE, Waller J, Ramirez AJ, Wardle J. Do the UK public realize that colorectal cancer is a common cancer? Colorectal Disease. 2011;13(2):227–228.

Noroozi A, Jomad T, Tahmasebi R. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: An application of the health belief model. Journal of Cancer Education. 2011;26(2):365 – 374.

Nahcivan NO, Secginli S. Health beliefs related to breast self-examination in a sample of Turkish women. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2007;34:425 – 432.

Birhane N, Mamo A, Girma E, Asfaw S. Predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model. Archives of Public Health. 2015;73(1):39.

Wardle J, Robb K, Vernon S, Waller J. Screening for prevention and early diagnosis of cancer. American Psychologist. 2015;70(2):119 –133.

Lauver D. Theoretical perspectives relevant to breast self-examination. Advances in Nursing Science. 1987;9:16–24.

McPherson K, Steel C, Dixon J. ABC of breast disease: Breast cancer – epidemiology, risk factors and genetics. British Medical Journal. 2000;321:624– 628.

Albofotouh MA, BaniMustafa AA, Mahfouz AA, Al-Assiri MH, Al-Juhani AF, Alaskar AS. Using the health belief model to predict breast self-examination among Saudi women. British Medical Journal. 2015; 15:1163–1174.

Dewi TK, Massar K, Ruiter RAC, Leonardi T. Determinants of breast self-examination practice among women in Surabaya, Indonesia: an application of the health belief model. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:1581. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7951-2