Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay Coproantigen among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending Selected Hospitals in Maiduguri, Nigeria
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health,
Background: Cryptosporidium species are intestinal parasites that infect both humans and animals; it causes cryptosporidiosis which usually resulted to diarrhea especially among those with impaired immunity. It was observed that enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) be ascertain was never been used as one of the techniques in the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in Maiduguri, Borno state.
Materials and Methods: Four hundred stool and blood samples were collected in four selected hospitals in the study area. Stool samples were analyzed by Enzyme link immunosorbent assay to detect fecal Cryptosporidium antigen, while the blood samples were analyzed with Partec sysmex ® flow cytometric machine for CD4 T-lymphocyte counts.
Results: Demographically, female are 275 while male 125 in number. The result of the stool samples have shown that, of the four hundred samples, seventy nine (79) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium species with an infection rate of 19.8%. According to gender, females have the highest infection rate of 14.25% while males 5.5%.based on age, patients between the ages of 20-39 have the highest prevalence of 9.5% followed by 40-59 with 7.5% and lastly 0-19 and >60 old are1.25 and 1.5% respectively. Traders (businessmen and women) demonstrated the highest infection rate of 8.0% followed by housewives 6.25%, civil servants 4.25% and lastly student and farmer with 1.0 and 0.25% respectively. In terms of CD4-T-lymphocyte count, those with CD4 <200cells/µl has an occurrence rate of 8.25% followed by 201-499 with 7.0% and >500 with 4.5%. on the bases of clinical details, the results have shown that patients with diarrhea has a prevalence of 13.0% while those without diarrhea has 6.75%, however, according to the hospitals the patients attended, the result has that, USUMH has 7.0%.Followed by UMTH 6.5%, SSHM 3.75%, and MSMH 2.5% respectively.
Conclusion: It was concluded that those with cd4 count bellow 200 are at risk of contacting the parasites and hence is one of the causes of diarrhea among HIV patients. It is recommended that proper hygiene practice should be encouraged.
- CD4 T cell
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