International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2021-01-25T15:25:37+00:00 International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal run by SDI.</p> Hypoglycemic Effects of Cymbopogon citratus Ethanol Leaves' Extract and Its Fractions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice 2021-01-25T15:25:37+00:00 Joyce Temu Haikael D. Martin Elingarami Sauli <p>Varieties of plants, including <em>Cymbopogon citratus,</em> are traditionally used in controlling hyperglycemia by either stimulating insulin secretion, inhibition α- Glucosidase or α-amylase activity. This study evaluated hypoglycemic effects of<em> Cymbopogon citratus </em>ethanol leaves' extract and its fractions&nbsp; in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.<em> Cymbopogon citratus</em> leaves were shade dried, grinded into fine powder and then extracted by cold maceration using ethanol. Fractionation was done by VLC using dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. OGTT was performed for both crude extract and fractions. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate (170 mg/kilogram body weight). The mice were treated with ethyl acetate fraction once daily at 400 mg/kilogram body weight dose for the period of 20 days.FBG and weight were then recorded in days 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 after six hours of fasting. Safety of crude water extract and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated in mice by using Lorke’s method, followed by 5 days observation for their mortality and behavioral changes. Comparisons of results among groups were analyzed using One-way ANOVA. The difference between the means of the two population groups (each against negative control) was considered significant at p&lt; 0.05. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Both crude and ethyl acetate fractions from <em>C. citratus </em>showed significant hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, higher hypoglycemic activity was shown by ethyl acetate fraction (p = 0.004). No mortality was observed at 5000 mg/kilogram body weight dose but sleeping and tremor were observed at a 1000 -5000 mg/kilogram body weight dose. Good hypoglycemic and safety results from ethyl acetate fraction highly suggest that <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> extracts are effective against insulin-dependent hyperglycemia, which may be contributed by the action of screened&nbsp; alkaloids, saponins, antraquinone, phenol and tannins. Isolation and testing of the active ingredients from the<em> C. citratus</em> extract are thus warranted for use in developing pharmaceutical anti-hyperglycemic drugs from this herbal plant.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites/Malaria Co-Infections and their Associated Risk Factors in Melong and Denzo, Littoral Region- Cameroon) 2021-01-20T07:11:34+00:00 Ebanga Echi Joan Eyong Makebe Sylvie Gangue Tiburce Yana Wenceslas <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites/malaria co-infections and their associated risk factors in Melong and Denzo, Littoral region- Cameroon</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Study period was from November 2019-March 2020. Blood samples were collected after informed consent by finger pricking. Stool samples were examined using normal saline and the Kato-Katz technique for the presence and intensity of IPs. Thick blood films were prepared, Giemsa-stained and examined under x100 for the presence of parasites and estimate GMPD. A structured questionnaire was filled out to obtain information on different factors which might predispose participants to become infected. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23 at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The overall prevalence of IP was 28.3% (113/400). <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> was the most prevalent IP 22.0% (88/400) and it was significantly more in Melong (27.7%, 76/274) than in Denzo (9.5%, 12/126), (P=0.001). The overall prevalence of malaria was 66.5% (266/400). The prevalence of malaria was higher in Denzo (79.3%, 100/126) than in Melong (60.5, 166/274), P=0.001. Children ≤5 years recorded the highest (75.4%, 83/110) prevalence of malaria, and the difference between age groups was significant, p=0.016. The overall prevalence of co-infections was 16.3% (65/400). Low access to bed nets, presence of bushes and water bodies, poor drinking water source and lack of personal and community hygiene are the associated risk factors leading to co-infection of malaria and intestinal parasites.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intestinal parasites/malaria co-infections are still a cause of morbidity and mortality in Cameroon; interventions targeting groups at risk will help reduce the burden of these diseases in Melong and Denzo localities.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Reliability of Some Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Predicting Uncomplicated Malaria Parasite Infection among Children in Anambra State, Nigeria 2021-01-25T15:25:24+00:00 Okeke, Obiageli Panthe Ononye Benjamin Uzonna Imakwu, Cyril Ali Chukwuebuka Uzochukwu Uzochukwu Amana Gabriel Unekwu Udeh, Nwabundo Peace Eyo, Joseph Effiong Okafor, Fabian Chukwuemenam Aniekwe, Maduabuchi Isaac <p>Malaria remains endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Haematological and biochemical changes that occur have been suggested as potential predictors of malaria. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic relevance of some haematological and biochemical parameters in predicting malaria in children in Anambra State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 248 symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Anambra State, Nigeria was conducted. Thin blood films were prepared for each subject and stained with Giemsa to aid the detection of malaria parasites. Their haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Haematological and biochemical parameters of infected and uninfected children from the communities and hospitals were compared using the Student’s t-test. Difference was set at p&lt;0.05. Out of the 248 children, 46.3% infection was recorded in the community while in the hospital, the prevalence was 94.0%. In the community survey (household), infected children had higher mean value of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, bilirubin, total iron and PCV but the differences were not significant (p &gt;0.05). The comparison of the biochemical and haematological indices, and the parasite density of infected and uninfected children from communities and hospitals in Anambra State, Nigeria showed that all the haematological indices except WBC of hospital and community infection did not differ significantly (p&gt; 0.05), but there were significant differences in their Na<sup>+</sup>, total iron, SGPT and SGOT. The comparison of these results showed that the changes in serum levels of these parameters may not be associated with malaria infection.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diagnosis Challenges and Control Strategies of Transboundary Diseases Presenting with Respiratory Signs in Small Ruminants in Developing Countries: Emphasis on Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia and Peste Des Petits Ruminants 2021-01-25T15:25:37+00:00 A. C. Chota G. M. Shirima L. J. M. Kusiluka <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To review the diagnosis challenges and control strategies of the diseases presenting with respiratory signs. The emphasis being more on two transboundary animal diseases of small ruminants; contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Clinical signs and postmortem lesions associated with the two diseases were also explicated.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Review.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Global Health, School of Life Science and Bio-Engineering (LiSBE), Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) from December 2017 to June 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A comprehensive review was carried out following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 506 articles, handbooks, Master’s and PhD thesis and conference proceedings were collected and after removal of the duplicates 80.6% (424/526) passed the first stage. Of the remaining search materials, (n=291) were removed including handbooks, master’s and PhD thesis which did not originate from the developing countries, 31.4% (133/424) passed the second. Of the articles that passed the second stage, (n=85) were removed from the study, these included all articles that did not involve field diagnosis such as review papers and those not originating from the developing countries, 36.1% (48/133) passed the third stage. In the fourth stage, (n=5) articles which reported on retrospective cases and archived samples were removed and 43 articles were reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 526 documents retrieved, 43 were eligible for review as they met all criteria for inclusion. Control strategies were recommended in 44.2% (19/43) of the articles of which most of them 63.2%, 12/19) recommended vaccination as a control strategy. Most of the articles reported definitive diagnosis reached following laboratory involvement as majority of them involved outbreak investigation or research works which is not the case in routine diagnosis. The major clinical signs mentioned in the review articles including fever 60.9% (14/23), oculonasal discharge 87.0% (20/23), respiratory distress 82.6% (19/23), erosive stomatitis 43.5% (10/23), diarrhea 56.5% (13/23) and coughing 30.4% (7/23) have been discussed relating to the definitive diagnosis reached in reporting articles. On the other hand, postmortem lesions including lung consolidation 38.1% (8/21), intestinal hemorrhage 38.1% (8/21), lung congestion 28.6% (6/21), serofibrinous pleurisy 28.6% (6/21), pneumonic lungs 23.8% (5/21) and unilateral lung inflammation 14.3% (3/21), have been discussed in relation to the definitive diagnosis reached.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite the similarities in clinical signs and postmortem lesions associated with diseases presenting with respiratory signs, definitive diagnosis of CCPP was reached in cases that involved clinical signs and postmortem lesions confined in the respiratory system whereas, PPR was more diagnosed in cases that presented with clinical signs and postmortem lesions associating the digestive system. However, presence of respiratory signs in the cases the diagnosed PPR may implicate presence of unidentified secondary bacterial infections. Vaccinations being the most advocated approach of control, require a broader look to make sure that polyvalent vaccines are available against the four common diseases. Also, use of treatment to reduce the effect of secondary infecting bacteria may be of help. Furthermore, for effective outcomes of the control strategies, collaborative efforts among countries at risk should be advocated.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##