International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal run by SDI.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2278-1005 Prevalence, Pattern and Outcome of Congenital Malformations among Neonates Seen at a Tertiary Health Institution in Yenagoa <p><strong>Background: </strong>Congenital malformations (CM) are significant causes of childhood morbidity and mortality impacting negatively on the affected family’s emotional and financial life. It also results in an enormous burden on a nation’s health and socio-economic systems. However, few studies on CM have emanated from developing countries including Nigeria and specifically from Yenagoa, Bayelsa State which is located in the oil rich Niger Delta region. We therefore analyzed the prevalence, pattern and outcome of management of babies with CM seen at the Neonatal unit (SCBU) of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa. This could be used as evidence for policy makers to develop and implement CM surveillance, prevention and supportive programs.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a descriptive observational study of all neonates with CM admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) over a one year period from 1<sup>st</sup> February 2017 to 31<sup>st</sup> January 2018. Identification and confirmation of congenital anomalies was done by physical examination, diagnostic investigations and surgical interventions. The conditions were classified organ and system-wise except for the chromosomal abnormalities. The prevalence and pattern of defects were determined, while factors related to the outcome of the anomalies were calculated with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Data entry and analysis were performed using excel and SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 502 newborn admissions during the study period, congenital anomalies were found in 61 newborns, giving a prevalence rate of 12.2% with a female preponderance of 55.7%. The commonest CM were those related to the cardiovascular system (47.5%) followed by the digestive system (32.8%) then musculoskeletal system (19.7%). The mean duration of care was 9.7± 9.0 days with mortality of 30.5% recorded at that period. Babies with CM affecting the cardiovascular system and chromosomal anomalies were less likely to survive although these relationships were not statistically significant (p &gt; 0.05). However, duration of care showed a statistically significant relationship with outcome as babies who spent one day and less in the neonatal unit&nbsp; had&nbsp; reduced odds of a favourable outcome (OR – 0.07). An increased odd of survival (OR – 2.09) was seen in babies with only one congenital birth defect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A high prevalence of Congenital malformations in newborns was demonstrated in this study. This has highlighted the need for a well-designed surveillance, prevention and supportive hospital, State and National programme for affected babies and their families.</p> I. I. Tunde-Oremodu O. A. Okosun U. Idholo A. S. Ujuanbi K. K. Odinaka O. O. Adeyemi O. E. Kunle-Olowu C. O. Duru P. P. F. Numbere N. Oyeyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 1 10 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130424 Governance and the New Corona Virus (COVID-19) Outbreak in the World: Empirical Evidence <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This paper aims to analyze the effect of public governance on the spread and mortality of the new corona virus. It focuses on the effects of differences observed in government’s responsiveness on the spread and mortality of this pandemic around the world.</p> <p>Sample: Our study is based on a sample of 129 countries from December, 8th 2019 to May 5<sup>th</sup>, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The Ordinary Least Squares method is applied to cross-sectional data. We also proceed by descriptive statistics and scatter analyses to access the effect of public governance on the spread and the mortality of the Covid-19.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results obtained show that government response time favors the speed of spread, level of infection, and mortality related to the Covid-19. The results indicate that countries in which governments have reacted early have lower levels of contamination and deaths than those that reacted late. Finally, our results suggest that the stringency of early government measures is a capital factor explaining the spread and mortality of this virus. Our results are robust to regional specificities, which distinguish relatively more resilient developing countries from developed countries with higher levels of contagion and mortality. Then, we recommend for all categories of countries a greater speed and rigour in government responsiveness in the management of pandemic diseases.</p> Melingui Bate Adalbert Abraham Ghislain Omang Ombolo Messsono Nsoga Nsoga Mermoz Homère Tsomb Tsomb Etienne Inédit Blaise ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 24 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130428 Environmental Conditions and Predictors of Lassa Fever Transmission in a Low Socioeconomic Community in Nigeria <p>Lassa fever is of public health concern in West Africa due to its endemic nature. Housing conditions have been revealed to be important sites for primary transmission. This study assessed environmental and housing conditions of a low-income community for factors that could contribute to the transmission of Lassa fever. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a field component. Observational checklist and an interviewer-administered questionnaire were used to assess environmental conditions and respondents’ hygiene knowledge and practices respectively. Rodent traps were also placed in selected households. Data collected were analysed using SPSS Version20. 40% of the respondents had poor housing conditions, 80% had good hygiene practice while 20% had poor knowledge. Respondents with good housing condition were 1.9 times more likely to have good hygiene practice compared to houses with poor housing condition (OR= 1.941, p= 0.009). Rodents trapped from the households were <em>Rattus rattus</em> (43.2%), <em>Rattus fuscipes</em> (38.6%) and <em>Rattus norvegicus</em> (18.2%). Houses with most rats trapped had the poorest housing conditions and hygiene practices. The results suggest that households in the community are susceptible to the transmission of Lassa fever. Therefore, effective awareness campaigns on the transmission of Lassa fever and good hygiene and sanitation practice should be encouraged in and around the home.</p> G. R. E. E. Ana Aniekan Eric Ulor Adedayo Faneye David Bamidele Olawade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 25 39 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130429 Screening for Speech and Language Delay among Children Up to or Less than 3 years Seen in the Children Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt <p><strong>Background: </strong>In the literature, there appears to be a lot of data on speech delay in children but most emanated from the western world, but little from sub-Sahara Africa especially Nigeria. This study therefore is to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of speech and language delay among children up to or less than 3years seen in our environment.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study carried out in the Paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital within the period of June 2020 to September 2020. The Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST 0-3) and Trivandrum Development Screening Chart (TDSC 0-3) are the tools used both to determine the speech and language delays and the developmental milestone in these children aged 0-3 years. Any child 3 years and below attending the clinic was included in the study; however children with apparent syndromes are excluded as well as children whose parents decline to give consent.&nbsp; IBM SPSS Statistics version 25 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics was employed in the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study comprised of 157 subjects with ages ranging from 2 months to 36 months.&nbsp; There is a significant relationship between hearing impairment and language/speech delay (p=0.002). There was a significant relationship between the various identified delays and a history of jaundice in the neonatal period.&nbsp; A prevalence of 15.3% for language/speech delay was obtained.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Language/speech delay is prevalent in our environment. Perinatal risk factors are significantly associated with these delays.</p> Ibekwe Matilda Uju Gabriel-Job Nneka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 40 49 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130430 Risk Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infections among School Aged Children in Kurmi Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria <p>One of the parasitic infection faced by school age children in developing countries is intestinal parasitic infection. This study was designed to determine risk factors associated with gastrointestinal helminthic infections among school age children. A total of 600 stool samples were randomly examined by direct smear method under microscope and formol-ether concentration technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-noneconomic status of the children’s parents and other variables. Of this, (n=252; 42%) were found to be infected with gastrointestinal helminths infections given a breakdown of male (n=148; 24.7%) and female (n=104; 17.3%). However, there was no significant difference in prevalence among the socio-economic status. Parent whose occupation was farmer (n=169; 28%) also recorded high rate of infection, the lowest prevalence was seen among civil servants (n=19; 3%). Parents with little or no knowledge of intestinal helminths were found to be statistically significant (n=199; 33.1%, p&lt;0.02; α =0.02) The&nbsp; highest&nbsp; rate of infection was recorded among children who had dirty finger nails (n=232; 38.6%), followed by those who walked barefooted(28.2%),then open defecation (n=147; 24.6%),&nbsp; hand washing after defecation (n=195; 30,7%,), habit of eating raw/roasted meat (n=136; 22.3%), hand washing before meal (n=102; 17.02%) and keeping of dirty clothes and bed linens (n=180; 30%) . Such a relatively high prevalence rate of helminthic infection in the study area could be used as a base line for the concern bodies to launch de-worming intervention campaigns.</p> Akwa, Vera Yafeh Yusufu, Waetsi Nya Obisike, Victor Ugochukwu Hassan, Amina Ojochide ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 50 59 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i130432