International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2278-1005 Factors Contributing to the Prevalence of Prenatal Depression among Adolescent Mothers Seeking Ante-Natal Care at Wajir County Referral Hospital https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1556 <p>This thesis discusses the significance of prenatal depression among adolescent mothers, focusing on its prevalence and associated factors. Prenatal depression, a type of clinical depression occurring during pregnancy, affects both mothers and children. The study highlights negative outcomes such as decreased maternal confidence and increased likelihood of subsequent pregnancies. Global prevalence rates, particularly higher in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), are noted. In the African context, cultural and social factors exacerbate mental health challenges among pregnant and postpartum adolescents. The research aims to address prenatal depression in Wajir County, Kenya, citing the lack of studies in Africa and the need for tailored interventions. Objectives include determining prevalence and identifying associated factors. Factors contributing to prenatal depression include economic status, socio-demographics, cultural aspects, adverse life events, and healthcare-related issues. The study utilizes a hospital-based case-control design, recruiting adolescent mothers from Wajir County Referral Hospital. Data collection involves questionnaire administration and EPDS scale assessment. Findings reveal a prevalence of 33.3%, with socio-cultural, maternal, and healthcare factors influencing depression rates. Recommendations include routine screening, community-based awareness campaigns, targeted interventions, enhanced healthcare training, and advocacy for mental health integration in antenatal care.</p> Aden Ismail Hassan Atei Kerochi Alfred Owino Odongo Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-08 2024-06-08 45 7 1 9 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71556 Stability-indicating Reverse Phase-HPLC Method Development and Method Validation for Quantitative Determination of Degradation Products in Favipiravir API and Drug Product https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1557 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Favipiravir is an antiviral medication shown to be broad spectrum activity against RNA viruses, and potentially treating the COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this study, the HPLC method for the quantification of degradation impurities (Favipiravir Acid Impurities) were developed and validated for Favipiravir in Tablet dosage form. The specificity of the method was achieved in analytical column Agilent HPLC-C18, 5µm, (4.6 x250) mm. using a suitable mobile phase was 10 mM Phosphate buffer (pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid) and Acetonitrile in the Isocratic more of 70:30 v/v. The flow rate is 1.0 mL/min. the injection volume is 10 µL, detection at 320 nm in UV and total run time is 8.0 minutes. The samples were made for forced degradation under hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic and thermal conditions. The method was validated for specific, selective, linear, robust and accurate as per the ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> The linearity of the method for Impurities and the analytes was found from 25 to 150 % concentration level with the correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>) &gt; 0.999. The accuracy for impurity and the analytes was performed from 50 to 150% level concentration, and mean recovery was found from 98-102%. The analytical degradation and validated study results indicate its unstable nature in acidic, basic and thermal conditions. Therefore, this method is simple, selective and sensitive, this method can be used in pharmaceutical research and development and quality control departments.</p> Varada Soujanya Revu Baby Nalanda Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 45 7 10 25 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71557 Insights into Malaria: A Cross-sectional Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in South-South Nigeria https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1558 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a public health concern deeply ingrained within local communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Local beliefs and practices play a critical role in defining the effectiveness of control measures. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria in a rural community in South-South Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ugun in South-South Nigeria. Data were collected from the participants using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS and a <em>P</em>-value of &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study included 300 participants with a mean age of 51.6 ± 20.9 years. The results showed that 28.3% had good knowledge, 55.7% had a positive attitude, and 44.7% demonstrated good practices regarding malaria. Knowledge scores were associated with the education (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.012) and occupation (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) of participants, while attitude scores were associated with the occupation (<em>P</em> = 0.002) and marital status of participants (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.001). Age, education, occupation, and marital status were associated with participants' practice scores (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.001). Civil servants (OR = 4.97; 95% CI: 1.69 - 14.61; <em>P</em> = 0.004) and pensioners (OR = 7.26; 95% CI: 1.98-26.61; <em>P</em> = 0.003) had higher odds of having good knowledge of malaria than farmers. Married participants (OR = 5.02; 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.66; <em>P</em> = 0.008) and those with good knowledge (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.11 - 3.42; <em>P</em> = 0.021) had higher odds of exhibiting a positive attitude. Participants with primary (OR = 6.21; 95% CI: 2.59 - 14.86; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) and secondary (OR = 12.04; 95% CI: 3.89 - 37.31);<em> P</em> &lt; 0.001) education had higher odds of adopting good practices than those with informal education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although more than half of the participants had a positive attitude towards malaria, the majority showed insufficient knowledge and poor practices related to the disease. This highlights the pressing need for targeted public health educational programs to improve community understanding and promote effective practices for malaria control.</p> Airenakho Emorinken Mercy Ofunami Dic-Ijiewere Eseohe Victoria Uhomohasebhor Jane Noma Iguma-Asaka Ndidi Akerele Blessyn Omoye Akpasubi Patrick Ojo Adunbiola Barbara Okoh Hannah Olohirere Izirein Orebowale A. Olugbemide Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 45 7 26 41 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71558 Evaluation of Waste Disposal Practices in Primary Healthcare Facilities in Rural Communities of Nigeria https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1559 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medical waste, also referred to as healthcare waste, has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “all the waste generated within healthcare facilities, research centers, and laboratories related to medical procedures; including the same types of waste generated from other scattered sources and homes”.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The main aim of this project was to assess waste disposal practices in Primary health facility in Esan Central Local Goverrnment Area in Edo State.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 65 staff members among primary health care facilities in Esan Central Local Government in Irrua, Edo state. The study involved using a simple random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0 software for descriptive statistics. The Chi square test was used to test for association and the level of significance was set as p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that majority of the participants (87%) had a good knowledge on health care waste management. Incineration (70.5%) is identified as the main method of disposal of waste along with sanitary landfill. As regards knowledge of the risk of poor disposal method, it was seen that the majority of the participants had good knowledge (85%) on the risk and negative impact this will have on people and the community at large.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this study, there was good knowledge on waste management and the participants understood the risk involved when there is poor management of waste.</p> Ogedegbe S. Idemudia Isabu O. Danibelle Chiegboka S. Frances Idialu. O. Perpetual Uhomoibhi O. David Chukwuneke M. Osita Chinedu M. Ekene Yakubu F. Damilola Odion E. Hendrix Uangbaoje A. Cyril Eguare O. Grace Ehizuelen G. Ehis Akhaine J. Precious Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 45 7 42 54 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71559 Spillage of Akosombo and Kpong Dams in Ghana: Perspectives on Public Health Impacts on Affected Populations and Proposed Mitigation Strategies https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1560 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The negative impact of floods on humans and the environment cannot be overemphasized. Annually, different parts of Ghana get flooded resulting in the loss of lives and significant damage to property.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the public health impacts of the controlled spillage of the Akosombo and Kpong dams in Ghana on the people living in downstream and upstream communities.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Government reports, published media reports, NGO publications, and field visits were used to assess the extent of damage, challenges faced by local communities, and mitigation measures initiated. Personal observation by the researcher through transect walk of the affected communities between September 15 and October 30, 2023 was also conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The spillage led to the loss of critical infrastructure such as schools, houses, toilet facilities, water supply systems and electricity. Overcrowding in temporary shelters provided for displaced persons served as a conduit for possible transmission of communicable diseases. The suspension of healthcare services in areas inundated by flood waters worsened the plight of residents including the vulnerable members of the society such as pregnant women, children, the aged, persons living with disability and the very poor. The submersion of farmlands, crops and drowning of livestock and poultry had serious implication for food security and the livelihoods of the affected individuals. The current study comprehensively captured the scale of devastation of the floods on people and their livelihoods in 7 out of the 16 regions within 21 administrative districts across Ghana, and proposed workable strategies to mitigate future happenings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The public health impacts resulting from the controlled spillage of the Akosombo and Kpong Dams on affected individuals was enormous. Possible surge in vector-borne disease transmission such as malaria, dengue, zika, and a probable increase in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Although short term measures were adopted to mitigate the impact of the flood on affected individuals through the provision of clean water, beddings, emergency food relief, long-term resilience strategies including early warning systems, climate sensitive interventions, effective collaboration among key stakeholders and disaster preparedness at the local level will help avert or reduce the severity of future floods. The study underscored the urgent need for comprehensive measures to mitigate the impacts of future disasters and enhance community resilience.</p> Christopher Yaw Dumevi Christopher Mfum Owusu-Asenso Bright Darko Amoah Joyce Junior Asiamah Ezekiel Kofi Vicar James-Paul Kretchy Nicholas Tete Kwaku Dzifa Dayie Patrick Ferdinand Ayeh-Kumi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 45 7 55 67 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71560 Epidemiology of Vaginal candidiasis and Its Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern at the Buea Regional Hospital in Cameroon https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1561 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns among both pregnant and non-pregnant women in Buea, Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Cross-sectional hospital-based design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study was conducted at the Buea Regional Hospital, in the South West Region of Cameroon for a period of 3months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study included a total of 270 participants, comprising 135 pregnant women and 135 non-pregnant women. Vaginal swab samples were collected and cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and later sub-cultured on Chromogenic Candida Agar. A Germ tube test was carried out to confirm the presence of <em>Candida albicans </em>and served as a confirmatory test in classifying the species as pathogenic or not. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Statistical analysis was performed where a <em>P</em> &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall prevalence of VVC was 20.7%. The prevalence was higher among pregnant women (23.7%) compared to non-pregnant women (17.8%). <em>Candida albicans</em> 69.6% was the most prevalent species while C. tropicalis (5.4%) was the least. Predisposing factors such as history of candidiasis was associated with VVC in pregnant women (<em>P</em>=0.009), while the presence of symptoms <em>(P</em>=0.011), and clothing preferences like trousers (<em>P</em>=0.048) were associated with VVC in non-pregnant women. Voriconazole (66.15%) was the most effective antifungal drug while caspofungin (81.25%) was least effective to all species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> VVC has a higher prevalence in pregnant than in non-pregnant women with <em>Candida albicans</em>, being the most prevalent species. History of candidiasis, presence of symptoms, and clothing preferences like trousers were statistically associated with the presence of VVC in this study population. Voriconazole could serve as the drug of choice for management of VVC infection.</p> Nicoline Fri Tanih Leudja Nathalie Flore Luma Woquan Sama Ofon Elvis Amih Tanih Godfred Ngu Samie Amidou Chethkwo Fabrice Njunda Anna Longdoh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 45 7 68 79 10.9734/ijtdh/2024/v45i71561