International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2278-1005 Malaria Transmission and Asymptomatic Malaria during Rainy Season among Nomads, North-eastern Nigeria https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1368 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the point prevalence of malaria infection and asymptomatic malaria during rainy season among some nomads of North Eastern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A cross sectional observational study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted across 11 randomly selected nomads’ camps around the Rivers Gongola and Benue basins spread over 3 Local Government Areas of Southern Adamawa State of North Eastern Nigeria. Data was collected during rainy season between July and September, 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Fifty-five randomly selected households (5 from each camp) were covered in the survey. One hundred and ninety two (192) consenting participants aged between 1 and 79 years (inclusive) were involved in the survey. Structured questionnaires were administered (care givers consented and responded on behalf of children) and blood samples collected. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasite using a microscopes and results of both survey and microscopy analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall malaria parasite prevalence was 87.5% and mean parasite density was 36,168 parasites per μl of blood. Thirty five (18.2%) of participant were of low parasite density, 35.5% were of moderate parasite density while 32.8% were of high parasite density. More than half (53%) of the malaria positive participants did not experience febrile symptoms within one month prior to the survey and were therefore asymptomatic. Tendency of manifestation of symptoms significantly increased with parasite density and decreased with age. The use of preventive measures against mosquito bite was 7.7% and only 16.1% of participants used antimalarial medicines or sought medical attention during their most recent fever episode.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers with high parasite densities and abysmally low usage of preventive and curative measures among the study population represents an ideal condition for effective malaria transmission which is unlikely to abate unless control measures are intensified.</p> Sani Njobdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 1 9 10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i231368 Platelet Count/Spleen Diameter Ratio as a Non-invasive Parameter in the Prediction of Esophageal Varices in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1369 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is the gold standard for detecting oesophageal varices (OVs) in cirrhotic patients. However, due to the possible limitations of EGD, there has been much interest in the use of non-invasive techniques for this purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the use of platelet count/ spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD) in the prediction of the presence and grading of OVs in cirrhotic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> One hundred cirrhotic patients were included in this cross-sectional study and subjected to EGD after informed consent. Either absence or the grade of OVs if existent was correlated with values of the PC/SD ratio. Univariate and multivariate analyses of data and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The PC/SD ratio was a good indicator in predicting the development of OVs (AUC of 0.897) with cut-off values of (987.28). Also, it correlated well with grades of oesophageal varices, a significant stepwise progressive decrease in PC/SD ratio was recorded through the grades of oesophageal varices as follows: Mean ± SD (882.59±390.43) (603.33±266.99) (503.76±190.80) (439.69±22.51) for grades I, II, III and IV respectively (p &lt;0.002),(AUC=0.688, 0.764, 0.795, 0.849) with a cut-off value of (784.37, 640.27, 597.50, 462.00) in grades I, II, III and IV respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The PC/SD ratio could be considered a non-invasive method of choice for screening OVs, sparing EGD for patients in need of intervention.</p> Basma Farid Hassan AbuSheasha Ghada Mahmoud Al-Ghazaly Desouky Ezzat Abou Ammo Hegazy Mohamed Hegazy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 10 20 10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i231369 Epidemiology of Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Rural Communities of Enugu State, Nigeria https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1370 <p>Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the infection of any part of the urinary tract, and about 150 million people worldwide develop UTI each year. Its is caused by bacteria, though fungi and viruses are etiologic agents, and can occur in community and hospital settings. This study was conducted to determine the epidemiology of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in Rural Communities of Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of 735 clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected and tested for bacteriuria from February, 2021 to June, 2021. The participants were assessed clinically to ascertain eligibility for participation, and urine samples were assessed microbiologically to isolate pathogens causing UTI. Pathogens isolated were identified morphologically, and biochemically, and results were tabulated, with respect to participants demographics. Total number of participants that participated in urine culture was 735, of this number, 172(23.40%) were males, whereas 563(76.60) were females. 510(69.39%) were married whereas 225(30.61%) were single. Total number of bacterial isolates obtained was 649 (88.30%).&nbsp; Of this, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent, 316 (48.7%), followed by Staphylococci, 154 (27.7%). The least represented isolate was Pseudomonas, 2 (0.3%). Of the total number of isolates obtained, 151(23.27%) came from males, whereas 498 (76.73%) were from females. Total number of married participants with positive bacteriuria was 449 (69.18%), and those of them that were single constituted 198(30.51%). Age range of 31-40 gave the highest level of bacteriuria 151 (23.27%), followed by age range of 21-30, 146 (22.50%). The least representation of bacteriuria was seen among age group 10-20, 39(6.01%). The prevalent of UTI in this study was high, and females, youths, and married people showed a positive correlation with community acquired urinary tract infection. Intermittent screening of rural dwellers for positive bacteriuria, with emphasis paid on clinical symptoms and proper treatment will go a long way in tackling the menace of urinary tract infection in our rural communities.</p> Aneke Christian Chinedu Chukwueze Chidimma Maureen Enebe Nympha Onyinye Enebe Joseph Tochukwu A. Ezeah Gabriel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 21 30 10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i231370 Obesity among Adult Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Accessing Care in Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/1371 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease afflicting people of all races, sex, economic and social status, and of all ages. Obesity is a major contributor to the type 2 diabetes epidemic. Obesity in persons with diabetes is associated with poorer control of blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol, placing patients at higher risk for both cardiovascular and microvascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the prevalence of obesity and the associated risk factors among diabetic patients in Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogbomoso.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The data collection lasted 4 months between March and June 2018. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and medical history of participants. We measured and recorded blood pressure, weight and height of each of the participants. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 20 statistical software package. The association between categorical variables were tested using Chi-square. Data presentation was done using tables, frequencies and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>Two hundred and seventy-five participants were recruited for this study. Their age ranges from 28 years to 85 years with the mean age of 59.07±11.82 years. Obesity was found in 29.8% of the study participants.&nbsp; Obesity was found to be associated with age group, sex, marital status, educational level, duration of diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension. The association was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes was high in this study and was associated with age group, sex, marital status, educational level, duration of diagnosis of diabetes and level of blood pressure. &nbsp;There is a need to intensify effort to control obesity and achieve optimal blood pressure control among diabetic patients and prevent complications from ensuing.</p> A. E. Idowu I. O. Amole A. O. Durodola S. A. Adesina A. O. Adegoke A. I. Akinwumi O. A. Idowu O. T. Awotunde A. D. OlaOlorun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 31 37 10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i231371