International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2278-1005 Easy Protocol Assessment in Children Emergency Room, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Nigeria <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong>&nbsp; To determine the effect of the EASY (Early Attention to Sepsis in the Young) protocol on sepsis outcomes in children admitted into the children's emergency unit.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> Sixty participants (24 males and 36 females) aged 1 month - 16 years were recruited into two arms- The EASY protocol and the non-EASY protocol (control) arm. The researchers obtained relevant treatment history and clinical and laboratory data, which were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Twenty-five (80%) patients on EASY protocol received saline boluses compared to 5 (16.7%) in the control group. The difference was significant: χ2 = 24.09, p ˂ .001. Similarly, more patients on EASY (10; 33.3%) than the control (3; 10.0%) received continuous positive airway pressure: χ2 = 4.81, p = .03.</p> <p>Where the symptoms were predominantly restricted to one organ system, those on EASY protocol spent less time in the emergency unit (0.98 ± 0.43 days) than the control (1.87 ± 0.97 days): F = 13.02, p = .001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall duration of hospital admission in both groups: t = 1.33, p = 0.20.</p> <p>In the EASY arm, the particular EASY treatment used correlated with the presence of underlying chronic disease and the approximate duration of current illness; p= 0.001, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.37 - 0.59; as well as the presence of abnormal blood cell counts; p= 0.022, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.39 - 0.64.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The EASY protocol increased the intensity of treating children with sepsis in the emergency unit and reduced the critical phase.</p> Owobu Adaugo Kesieme Chinenye Idialu Juliet Owobu Clifford Ike Chiedozie Okogbenin Sylvanus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-17 2021-07-17 1 11 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030486 Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors of Dating Violence among Undergraduate Students of a Tertiary Institution within Sokoto Metropolis of Sokoto State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the prevalence, pattern and risk factors of dating violence among undergraduate students of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>It was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 340 undergraduate students, selected via multistage sampling technique. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents, and data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 26.0 and Microsoft Excel 2016.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The ages of the respondents ranged from 18 to 29 years, with mean of 22.4±2 years; 218(66.9%) were males, 214(65.6%) were Hausa/Fulani and 266(81.9%) were Muslims. Majority of the respondents have been in a dating relationship for more than one academic year; 106(37.3%) of the dating partners were students of the university, of which 26(24.8%) were class mates. Current and lifetime prevalence of dating violence were 56% and 59.5% respectively. Form of dating violence experienced mostly by respondents was emotional/psychological violence [44(22.4%)], physical violence was the least experienced [27(14.04%)]. Up to 93(48%) of the dating violence took place on campus and 68(35%) of the perpetrators were current partners. Factors associated with dating violence included feeling overburdened by partners’ demands, and spending too much on partner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Current and lifetime prevalence of dating violence were high and emotional violence was the commonest form of dating violence experienced by respondents. There is need for school authorities to put in place mechanisms to identify victims of dating violence and come up with measures aimed at stemming the tide of dating violence in university campuses.</p> Habibullah Adamu Oche Mansur Oche Muhammad Aisha Isah Sahabi Abubakar Muhammad Akilu Abdullahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-24 2021-07-24 12 26 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030487 Prevalence of Helminthiasis and Worm Load among Pre-school Children in Rural Areas of Enugu State <p><strong>Background: </strong>Globally, many people suffer from parasitic infections of the intestines with up to 24% of the world population are affected. These infections are particularly prevalent in low-and middle-income countries and exist mainly among economically and socially disadvantaged populations. This study sought to establish the current prevalence of STHs among preschool children in rural areas of Enugu State.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at Obinofia Ndi-Uno and Obe, rural communities of Enugu State, Nigeria. A pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and Laboratory kits for stool analysis were used. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 589 preschool children (294 from Obinofia Ndi-Uno and 295 from Obe) were studied. Ova of helminths were seen in the stool of 47 preschool children giving a prevalence of 8% with ascariasis being the predominant infection.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>The prevalence of worm infection in this study was low compared to some studies in Nigeria, Africa, and other parts of the world.</p> Nwachukwu Chinedu Ugwunna Nnamdi Nnanna Ude Ogochukwu Chinwe Ugwunna Chika Nwanma Onwasigwe Emmanuel Nwabueze Aguwa Elias Aniwada Francis Aneke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 27 33 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030488 Burden of HIV, Tuberculosis Infection and Risk Factors amongst Inmates of Correctional Institutions in Port Harcourt Nigeria <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Burden of infectious diseases in correctional institutions constitutes a public health concern due to the confined nature and congestion of the prisons. This study aimed at surveying Burden of HIV, Tuberculosis Infection and Risk factors amongst inmates of Correctional Institutions in Port Harcourt Nigeria</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was descriptive, comprising both males and females. A total of 178 inmates constituted the study population</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Port Harcourt Maximum Prisons, Creek Road and the Juvenile Remand Home, Borokiri, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between the months of May to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two millilitres of blood was collected from each participant after receiving their informed consent. The blood was dispensed into EDTA anti-coagulant bottles and used for serological investigations of HIV 1&amp;2, and TB.&nbsp; Samples positive for TB was confirmed using the GeneXpert Molecular technique while HIV 1&amp;2 were confirmed using Real-Time PCR and their Viral Loads determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall prevalence of HIV and MTB in the study population were: HIV 1 &amp; 2 (3.9%) and Tuberculosis (0.6%) The Mean Viral Loads of positive samples were HIV 1&amp;2 (479.3 copies/ml); and High MTB was detected. The most significant risk factors identified are as follows:, inmates with tattoos on their bodies (c<sup>2</sup>=83.6, p&lt;0.0001), took part in blood initiation ceremonies (c<sup>2</sup>=110.1, p&lt;0.0001), have exchanged needles/sharp objects (c<sup>2</sup>=2.2, p&gt;0.0001), have tribal marks (c<sup>2</sup>=58.4, p&lt;0.0001), received blood (c<sup>2</sup>=151.1, p&lt;0.0001). Majority of the inmates have had sex before, 159(89.3%) [89(56.0%) had multiple sex partners up to 3 and above, 32(20.1%) had 2 partners while 38(23.9%) said they were single sex partners (c<sup>2</sup>=37.1, p&lt;0.0001)]. On condom use, 90(50.6%) of the inmates do not use condom while 88(49.4%) admitted they use condoms. 7(3.9%) of the inmates have indulged in anal sex (c<sup>2</sup>=151.1, p&lt;0.0001). 6(3.4%) had history of family drug use while 23(12.9%) have used drugs prior to imprisonment</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of HIV among inmates in this study is quite high and remains a public health problem while that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) though appearing relatively low still remains a public health risk. The risk factors amongst inmates of Correctional Institutions in Port Harcourt Nigeria have been identified in this study. The high HIV 1 &amp; 2 prevalence with MTB prevalence with high viral load results indicates poor health conditions which if not contained can spread to other inmates. This requires prompt interventions and treatment among the correctional inmates.</p> Theresa Awortu Jeremiah Ransom Baribefii Jacob Zaccheaus Awortu Jeremiah Osaro Mgbere Chris Anyamene Ifeoma Bessie Enweani-Nwokelo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 34 44 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030489 A Study on Skin Microbiome, Knowledge and Control of Malaria among Volunteers in Akure– A Malaria Endemic Area, South-West, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to determine the skin microbial diversity, knowledge and control of malaria among volunteers in Akure. Skin surface of one hundred and fourteen (114) consented participants were swabbed at different locations (elbow, neck, and knee) on the body and examined for the microbial diversities using standard microbiological methods. Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and awareness of malaria and mosquito control among the participants were evaluated with the use of multiple choice questioners. The highest number of the participant were within the age range 31-40 years 32(28.1%) followed by age range 11-20 and 21-30 years (17.5%). The number of male and female participants were 67(58.8%) and 47(41.2%) respectively. It was noted that all the participants have heard about malaria before while 60(52.6%) of them have been diagnosed of malaria in the last 6 months, 28.9% of the participants have their personal mosquito repellant as at the time of this investigation while 71.1% did not have mosquito repellant. Bacterial counts (Log<sub>10</sub> CFU/cm<sup>2</sup>) ranged from 5.70±0.13 (neck) to 6.51±0.05 (knee) while the highest fungal counts (Log<sub>10</sub> SFU/cm<sup>2</sup>) was observed in knee (2.80±0.07) followed by elbow (2.61±0.04) and neck (1.91±0.05). Ten (10) bacterial and nine (9) different fungal species were identified as skin microbiome, the most occurred bacterial genus in the skin of the neck, elbow and knee were <em>Staphylococcus</em> (49.36%), <em>Bacillus</em> (42.23%) and <em>Staphylococcus</em> (43.75%) respectively while the most occurred fungal genus were <em>Aspergillus </em>(36.54%), <em>Aspergillus </em>(50%) and <em>Alternaria </em>(18.92%) in the neck, elbow and knee skin respectively. The results of the study will be important for control of malaria in endemic area and the skin microflora isolated could be explored as mosquito repellant to reduce malaria infection in endemic areas.</p> Omoya Funmilola Oluyemi Adeleye Yemisi Mary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 45 58 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030490 Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Gene (CTX-M) among Representative Multidrug-Resistant Gram-negative Bacterial Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections <p>Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a huge public health problem and the emergence of extended spectrum-beta-lactamase producing bacterial pathogens increases the burden of infectious diseases in Nigeria. This study determined the current prevalence of cephalosporin resistance among Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections between February 2018 and June 2018. This study was aimed to determine cephalosporin resistance prevalence among Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections between February 2018 and June 2018. A total number of forty representative Gram-negative bacterial isolates namely <em>Escherichia coli </em>(n=14), <em>Klebsiella pneumonia </em>(n=9), <em>Proteus mirabilis </em>(n=12), and <em>Klebsiella oxytoca </em>(n=5) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes using primers specific for <em>bla</em>TEM, <em>bla</em>SHV and <em>bla</em>CTX-M. The molecular evaluation indicated the presence of <em>blaCTX-M</em> gene in 20.0% of the tested organisms, while other ESBL genes variants were not detected.&nbsp; The organisms carrying the <em>blaCTX-M</em> gene included <em>E. coli</em> (n=3, 37.5%), <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (n=1, 12.5%), <em>P. mirabilis</em> (n=1, 12.5%),) and <em>K. oxytoca</em> (n=3, 37.5%). The presence of cephalosporin resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients with UTI may constitute a serious threat to public health and efforts must be intensified to regulate the clinical use of the cephalosporins.</p> Ayodele Oluwaseun Ajayi Samuel Ayodeji Osanyinlusi Oluwabukola Atinuke Popoola Bryan Ogeneh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 59 64 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1030491