International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal.</p> en-US contact@journalijtdh.com (International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health) contact@journalijtdh.com (International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health) Tue, 11 Jan 2022 06:21:40 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Transmitted HIV-1 Drug-resistance Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Patients of the North Western Region of Cameroon https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/30548 <p><strong>Background: </strong>First line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens in Cameroon comprises of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). As ART continues to expand, the emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs) is a challenging problem. The ongoing scale up of ART in Cameroon has prompted the interest in surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR).&nbsp; The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of TDR among drug naïve individuals residing in the North West Region (NWR) of Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>Ethics approval was obtained from the National Ethics Committee of Cameroon and patients informed consents were obtained. A total of 81 HIV-1 infected and drug naïve patients were recruited from randomly selected clinics located in the NWR of Cameroon from February 2016 and April 2016. HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase region was sequenced using an in-house protocol. HIV drug resistance mutations were identified and analyzed using Stanford HIVDR database and the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) tools. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.</p> <p>Results: Of the 81 samples analyzed, the prevalence of TDR was 11.1% (9/81). Of these 9.9% (8/81) had drug resistance mutations to nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs) and a single individual (1.2%) with protease inhibitors. A total of 8.6 % (7/81), 4.9(4/81), and 3.7 % (3/81) individuals had a major mutation to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and both NRTIs and NNRTIs respectively. Thymidine analogue mutations [TAM] (M41ML, D67N, K70T/R, T215TA/F, and K219Q) were detected in five individuals.&nbsp; The most frequent NRTI and NNRTI DRMs were K219Q (n=2) and E138A (n=2) respectively. Mutations associated with NRTIs were TAM and M184MV; NNRTIs were A98G, K103N, V108I, V179E, and Y181C and I54IFV for PI. CPR tool revealed a 4.9% (4/81) prevalence with the following single mutations K103N D67N, K70R, M184V, T215F, K219Q.The difference between two methods was statistically significant p=0.0001. These mutations confer resistance to all NRTIs and NNRTIs drugs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Although moderate transmitted drug resistance (11.1%) levels were detected in this study, this calls for routine drug resistance surveillance among patients on ART. This will ensure relative maintenance of low viral suppression amongst HIV patients.</p> Lem Edith Abongwa, Judith Ndongo Torimiro, Anthony Kebira Nyamache, Paul Okemo, Laure Arlette Tchapda, Yengo Clauvis, Takou Désire, Fokunang Charles ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/30548 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Meat Retail Shops and Meat Handlers in the Buea Municipality, Cameroon https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/30549 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) is a notorious multidrug-resistant biovar of <em>S</em>. <em>aureus </em>associated with infections that result in high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Its persistence in both host and non-host environments adds a major ecological dimension to the problem, thereby making it a one health challenge. This study determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of MRSA from meat retail shops and meat handlers in the Buea municipality in addition to basic hygiene practices implemented in the meat retail shops.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, a total of 260 samples (comprising 52 swabs each from weighing balances, butchering slabs, cutting knives, hands of meat handlers and meat samples) were randomly obtained and subjected to microbiological analysis. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of meat handlers and basic hygiene practices were captured in a questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> After enrichment, each sample was inoculated on mannitol salt agar and DNA extracted from presumptive <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> isolates for detection of the <em>nuc</em> gene. MRSA was identified by oxacillin disk diffusion and confirmed by amplification of the <em>mec</em>A gene. All MRSA isolates were challenged with 10 commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 27 MRSA isolates were recovered from hand swabs (5.8%), meat (15.4%), knives swabs (21.2%) and butchering slabs (9.6%). All (100%) MRSA were resistant to ampicillin and cefepime followed by ofloxacin (92.6%), ciprofloxacin (81.5%) and vancomycin (37%). High susceptibility was observed for gentamicin (100%) and amikacin (100%). All isolates were multidrug-resistant and comprised 11 antibiotypes. Most meat handlers (71.2%) did not have basic meat safety training, while 90.4% of the meat retail shops did not have a nearby water source.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results indicate that meat retail shops could be a potential reservoir of MRSA in the environment and meat handlers need more basic meat safety training.</p> Seraphine Nkie Esemu, Fondzenyuy Ahmadou Yaya, Wandah Peterson Nkengum, Nene Kaah Keneh, Jerome Achah Kfusi, Stella Ifeanyi Smith, Lucy Mande Ndip, Roland Ndip Ndip ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijtdh.com/index.php/IJTDH/article/view/30549 Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000