Open Access Minireview Article

Feasible Cancer Control Strategies for Nigeria: Mini-Review

Kolawole Abimbola Omolara

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10

Globally the incidence of cancer is rising. In 2007 there were 11 million cancer cases, 7 million cancer deaths and 25 million people living with cancer. This is estimated to increase to 27 million cases, 17 million deaths and 75million people living with cancer in 2050. More than 50% of these cases occur in developing countries where cancer is the second most common cause of death. It constitutes 12% of all deaths (after cardiovascular disease); killing more people than HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria combined. Cancers are emerging public health problems in developing countries like Nigeria, where they were previously considered rare. However the epidemiological shift and ageing population make cancers a challenge. The number of new cancer cases which was initially estimated to be 100,000 per annum increased to about 500,000 in 2010. WHO (2008) estimates that incidence of cancer in Nigerian men and women by 2020 will be 90.7/100,000 and 100.9/100,000; and the deaths rates 72.7/100,000 and 76,000/100,000 respectively. The commonest cancers of Nigerian men are cancers of prostate, liver and lymphomas while cancer of cervix and breasts are commonest in the women. Currently, Nigeria has no national policy or a comprehensive document on cancer control. There is no organized national program for cancer prevention. Moreover, control of reproductive cancers is rather mentioned in the National policy on Reproductive Health and Strategic Framework. The prevention of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) may occur within the context of the national program for control of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Nauclea latifolia (Smith) Fruit Studied in Albino Rats

Omale James, Haruna Huxley Ugbede

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 11-21

This study was designed to investigate the cholesterol lowering effect of Nauclea latifolia fruit as well as its chemical compositions, toxicity, vitamins, and effect on hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count in albino rats. Hypercholesterolemia is a predominant risk for atherosclerosis and associated coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. Control of cholesterol levels through therapeutic drugs, notably statins, have significantly reduced the risk for developing atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. However, adverse effects associated with therapeutic drugs warrant to find other alternative approaches for managing hypercholesterolemia which include indigenous medicinal plants. Phytochemical detected in Nauclea latifolia increased in the order, cyanide → saponins → phytate → tannin → oxalate (0.09±0.010mg/g, 0.65±0.005%, 2.70±0.010%, 3.27±0.001mg/g, and 88.56±0.001mg/100g respectively). The crude fruit sample lowered plasma cholesterol at 40, 60 and 80% feed supplementation studied and this was dose dependent. All animals fed with the plant sample showed dose dependent increase in white blood cells at 40, 60 and 80% feed supplementation (4.23±0.01, 4.38±0.01, 4.40±0.03 (X109/L), respectively). Hemoglobin and red blood cell count decreased dose dependently. Vitamin content ranged between 6.42 to 92.72 mg/100g for vitamins E, A and C. The LC50 of the plant extract was 1240.73 µg/ml conferring lower toxicity when compared with reference standard, potassium dichromate (LC50 = 176.86 mg/ml). In conclusion, this result shows that Nauclea latifolia possesses hypocholesterolemic potential (85.20±0.05 mg/dl when compared with control 136.25±0.005 mg/dl) and is relatively non-toxic (LC50=1240.73µg/ml. Hypocholesterolemic effect is related to its phytochemical contents.