Open Access Short Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Amantadine Hydrochloride versus Amantadine Sulphate in Treating Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV

Hosny Salama, Abd El Rahman Zekri, Heba Farouk Salem, Dalia Omran, Mohamad Abd El Rahman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1104-1110
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11789

Background: Pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) alpha in combination with weight-based doses of ribavirin is currently recommended as a standard-of-care treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the low response rate with interferon as well as the high occurrence of side effects has prompted investigators to search for other drugs which may be efficacious in the treatment of hepatitis C.
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride versus amantadine sulphate monotherapy when administered to naïve Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Patients and Methods: Fifty Egyptian patients with chronic HCV were randomized to receive amantadine hydrochloride (100mg) two times daily or amantadine sulphate (100mg) two times daily for sixty days.
Results: Patients treated with amantadine hydrochloride and amantadine sulphate showed highly significant reduction in serum AST and ALT levels but there was non significant reduction in HCV RNA viral load. Patients tolerate therapy well with no drop out.
Conclusion: Amantadine oral therapy appears to have activity for treating hepatitis C.

Open Access Short Communication

Analysis of the Nutrient Content of Infant Complementary Food Fortificant-Moringa oleifera Leaves with the Commonly Consumed Local Infants Foods in Nigeria: Zea mays and Glycine max

I. C. Nwosu Odinakachukwu, N. Nnam Ngozi, Ibeziako Ngozi, N. Maduforo Aloysius

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1111-1122
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11949

Aims: Analysis of the nutrient content of maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and Moringa oleifera leaves commonly consumed by infants in Nigeria were done to determine the nutrient composition of the complementary foods and leaves.
Methodology: Yellow maize (Zea mays) grain were fermented for 48h and oven–dried. Soybean (Glycine max) seeds were boiled for 1h, dehulled and oven-dried. Moringa oleifera leaves were shade-dried. All the food materials were milled into fine flours. The proximate, energy, mineral and β-carotene contents of the flours were determined using standard methods. The result was analyze using SPSS version 17 to determine the standard deviation (SD) and percentage nutrient composition in 100g sample.
Results: The proximate and energy composition of food materials (Maize, soybean and Moringa oleifera leaves) used. The crude protein level was 36.46% in soybean, 27.45% and 10.22% in Moringa oleifera leaves and maize respectively. The energy level was 1,849KJ in soybean, 1,531KJ in maize and 1,134KJ in Moringa oleifera leaves. The minerals and β-carotene contents of maize, soybean and Moringa oleifera leaves (%). Calcium was 1,335mg in Moringa oleifera leaves, 14.49mg in soybean and 11.67mg in maize. Moringa oleifera leaves had 26.44mg iron, soybean had 9.65mg and maize had 5.95mg. Zinc level was 7.49mg in Moringa oleifera leaves, 3.46mg in soybean and 1.87mg in maize. β-carotene was 3,846.15RE in Moringa oleifera leaves, 538.46RE in soybean and 102.56RE in maize.
Conclusion: Incorporation of pulverized Moringe oleifera leaves in infants’ food could diversity food intake, ensure food security and reduce some micronutrient deficiency diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Molecular Diagnosis and Different Diagnostic Methods of Schistosma haematobium in Gezira State Sudan

Nagla Gasmelseed, Nhashal E. Karamino, Anas O. Hamdoun, Ahmed E. Elmadani

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1059-1068
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11803




Over 650 million people globally are at risk of infection with Schistosomiasis, with more than 200 million people infected, and higher disease rates occur in children.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the Molecular diagnostic method with different diagnostic methods (urine filtration, haematuria ultrasound).
Methods: Eighty three students of Quran School for boys in Radwan village, Gezira state were recruited. The mean age was 12.45±3.2 with a range between 6-20 years. Urine samples were collected. Different diagnostic methods were used. DNA was extracted from the eggs. Polymerase Chain Reaction was done for all samples.
Results: Fifty-four percent of the cases were positive with urine filtration method, of whom microhaematuria was seen in 28%, while 61.4% were positive by ultrasound. Using polymerase chain reaction 73.3% of the samples were positive for Schistosoma haematobium. The comparison between the different diagnostic methods and gold standard urine filtration techniques showed that haematuria had a sensitivity of 42.2% and specificity of 89.4% with a significant association, (P<0.05). No, significant difference was found with ultrasound (P>0.05) which had a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 50%, while PCR showed a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60.5%, showing a significant association between PCR and filtration techniques.
Conclusion: The study concluded that PCR was 100% sensitivite, while microhaematuria method was highly specific 89%. Ultrasound had alower specificity as compared with other diagnostic tests. It is recommended that different diagnostic techniques should be applied according to the situation of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blister and Bulla Following Snake Bite in Nigeria: A Prospective Cohort Study

G. Iliyasu, S. T. Halliru, Z. G. Habib, A. B. Tiamiyu, F. M. Dayyab, S. B. Abubakar, A. G. Habib

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1069-1077
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/12016

Introduction: Snakebites are a major health problem in several rural areas of tropical countries worldwide. Timely administration of appropriate antivenoms (AV) has been shown to significantly improve outcome. It has been hypothesized that presence of blisters may lead to poor outcome because of potential sequestration of snake venom with gradual systemic absorption. We explore the impact of blisters on outcome of snake bite envenomation.
Methods: The study was a prospective cohort, enrolling all snake bite victim reporting to hospital in Febuary-April 2013. Data on demography, type of snake, circumstances of bite, presence or absent of blisters, systemic bleeding, 20min Whole Blood Clotting Time (WBCT), amount of anti-venom needed to restore clotting, and outcomes were recorded. Analyses explored relationship between blister and poor outcome (PO) defined as deaths, gangrene, prolonged Length of Hospital Stay (LOS), amputation, altered consciousness or requiring more than 10mls or 30mls of Echitab or Echitab plus respectively to restore clotting.
Results: A total of 128 cases were studied, 101 were males. The mean age of the victims was 25.19 years ±17.51. Carpet viper was the most common responsible snake 89/106(84.0%). Local 84/128(65.6%), systemic bleeding 33/128(25.8%) and non-clotting 20WBCT 100/128(78.1%) were common while amputations 3/128(2.3%), gangrene 5/128(3.9%), altered consciousness 2/128(1.6%) and deaths 4/128(3.1%) were fewer. Blister was present in 42/128(32.8%) which had no relationship with gender (P=.39). Patients with blisters compared to those without blisters had more gangrene 4/42(9.5%) vs 1/86(1.2%) (P=.04), non-clotting 20WBCT 40/42(95.2%) vs 60/86(69.8%) (P<.001) and required more amount of antivenom to restore clotting >10mls (Echitab) or 30mls (Echitab plus) in 8/32(25%) vs 3/57(5.3%) (P=.03). Using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test patients with blisters had a median LOS of 6.0±2.3 days compared to those without blisters 5.0±3.5 days (P=.02). In a logistic regression adjusting for LOS and systemic bleeding, blister predicted PO with P=.043 (95%CI: 0.110- 0.963).
Conclusion: Presence of blister predicts PO (LOS, gangrene and large amount of antivenom needed to restore clotting). Deblistering of blister in snake bite patients may improve outcome. A randomised control trial is recommended to look at the effect of deblistering on outcome among patients with snake bite envenomation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Serum C-reactive Protein Levels and Severity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Seen in South-South Nigeria

Utuk Eno-Obong Edet, Ikpeme Enobong Emmanuel, Udo Jacob Jackson, Okpokowuruk Frances Samuel

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1078-1087
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/10912

Aim: To determine the relationship between serum C-reactive protein levels and severity of malaria infection in children aged six months to five years in a malaria endemic setting.
Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Children Out-patient (CHOP) Clinic, Children Emergency Unit (CHEU), Child Welfare/Growth Monitoring Clinic, Immunization Centre and main Paediatric Ward of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo in Akwa-Ibom State. It was conducted over a six month period.
Methodology: We studied three hundred and sixty (360) children with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria and three hundred and sixty (360) healthy controls matched for age and gender. Their serum C-reactive protein levels were measured using the highly sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0.
Results: The serum C-reactive protein levels showed a positive correlation with the malaria parasite count (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). Children presenting with severe manifestations of malaria had significantly higher mean serum C-reactive protein levels (33.3± 6.88mg/l) than the 8.12±9.09mg/l obtained in those with uncomplicated malaria (t = -15.57; p = 0.001.
Conclusion: This study shows that C-reactive protein levels are increased in children with malaria, especially in severe malaria. Its estimation therefore holds potential usefulness as an adjunct for assessment of malarial severity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Profile of Cancer and Investigation of Some Risk Factors in Morocco

A. Sbayi, A. Arfaoui, N. Ait Ouaaziz, F. Habib, A. Quyou

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1088-1096
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/12480

Aims: Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide. Each year, tens of millions of people are diagnosed with cancer around the world, and more than half of the patients eventually die from it. The present work aims to bring out the epidemiological profile of cancer and to find out the association that would exist between the gender of patients, the tumor localization and the vital prognosis.
Methodology: The present work consists in a retrospective study carried out in an oncology centre in Rabat, considered to be representative of the private sector in the northern region of Morocco, and based on a sample of 1756 cases of cancer treated during the period January 2005-December 2006.
Results: Among the 1756 studied cases, 58% are females and 42% are males. The mean age of patients is 53±15 years old.
The repartition of patients according to the localization shows that breast cancer is the most frequent with 24% of cases, followed by cervix cancer with 11% and lung cancer with 8%.
The study shows that the higher number of deaths occurred in lung cancer patients with 21% of all deaths in our sample. Nevertheless, the highest lethality is observed for the liver cancer with 37.5%.
The results also show that males display a significantly higher risk for bladder, lung and stomach cancers, whereas females have significantly higher risk for thyroid, skin and gall bladder cancers.
The calculation of death risk by localization shows that liver and lung cancers present the worst vital prognosis.
Finally, we demonstrated that the survival length after beginning of treatment depends on cancer localization.
Conclusion: More efforts should be made by health authorities in Morocco to fight against cancer in especially those with bad vital prognosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cases of Dog Bite in Aba, Abia State Nigeria and Its Public Health Significance

Otolorin Gbeminiyi Richard, Umoh Jarlath U., Dzikwi Asabe Adamu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1097-1103
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/12194

Background: Dog bite cases poses a major public health threat in Nigeria. Majority of rabies infection in humans are due to bites from rabid dogs which are mainly local breed. Research carried out in Nigeria has established that some apparently healthy dogs excrete rabies viral antigen in their saliva without showing clinical signs.
Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate cases of dog bite in Aba, Abia state Nigeria and its public health significance
Methodology: Cases of dog bite in humans reported at the Zonal Veterinary Clinic Aba, Abia state Nigeria from 2007 to 2012 were retrieved. Data on cases of dog bites from the Veterinary clinic record were extracted using a structured questionnaire designed for the study.
Results: Out of 215 reported cases of dog bite, 11.6% were victims less than 15 years of age and 44.7% were victims greater than 30 years of age. Local breed of dogs (50.7%) were most involved in the bites, with cross breed (12.6%) being the least. Majority (78.1%) of the dogs involved in the bites were unvaccinated against rabies, with 11.6% having unknown anti-rabies vaccination status. There was no association (X2 =7.38, P > 0.05) between breed and vaccination status of the offending dogs. Dog bite victims were more of males (62.8%) than females (37.2%) with seasonal index showing the greatest values between the months of October to December. Most of the bites (63.7%) occurred arround the lower extremities with bites around the abdominal region (2.8%) being the least.
Conclusion: Reports of dog bite cases in humans indicate the need for public health enlightenment campaign programs aimed at educating the public on the need to seek proper post-exposure prophylaxis treatment from health care facilities when bitten by dogs and the need for dog owners to vaccinate their dogs yearly against rabies.

Open Access Review Article

Heavy Metal Contamination of Herbal Drugs: Implication for Human Health-A Review

Chinelo A. Ezeabara, Ogochukwu E. Okanume, Adaeze N. Emeka, C. U. Okeke, E. I. Mbaekwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1044-1058
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11481

Interest in the use of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases in Africa has increased tremendously over the past decade. Ingestion of contaminated medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products is regarded as potential source of heavy metal toxicity to both man and animals. Heavy metals are often not well defined in medicine, but include all toxic metals. They are released into the environment by both natural and a variety of anthropogenic sources. The presence of heavy metals in plant tissues is primarily dependent upon their availability and concentration in the soil. They can also be deposited directly on plant surfaces from the atmosphere. Heavy metals are persistent in nature due to their long biological half-life. The major heavy metals of health concern are arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. They are the redox inactive metals and show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione - an antioxidant. In order to ensure quality and safety of herbal drugs, cultivation and collection of medicinal plants in the immediate vicinity of industrial sites which utilize these metals and their compounds, and sites where these metals have been improperly disposed is highly discouraged; because plants from these areas are prone to high concentration of heavy metals, hence, increases human risk of contamination when taken. In addition, screening of plant extracts, herbal medicinal products and medicinal plants at large, for heavy metal contamination is of highly medical importance and must be given maximum attention in phytotherapy.