Open Access Short Communication

Biocidal activities of Solvent Extracts of Azadirachta indica against Some Endemic Tropical Vector-borne Diseases

Tariwari C. N. Angaye, Elijah I. Ohimain, Douye V. Zige, Baraikio Didi, Nengimonyo Biobelemoye

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1198-1208
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11746

The biocidal efficacy of Chloroform (CEX), n-Hexane (HEX), Acetone (AEX) and Ethanol (EEX) extracts, of the bark and root of Azadirachta indica (Neem), were investigated against Anopheles gambiae and Bulinus globosus in a two-phased rapid and final screening test. Results of the phytochemical screening, indicated phytochemical constituents like; Flavonoids, Tannins, phenols, saponin, phytates, glycosides and triterpenes. All extracts were active (≥500ppm), during the rapid screening phase; hence final screening phase was also carried out. Results of the final screening shows that, the snail (B. globosus), were more susceptible to all solvent extracts compared to the mosquito larvae (An. gambiae). The ethanol extract of the bark against the snail (EEXbS) induced the highest mortality with LC50 value of 0.35ppm compared to the least, chloroform extract of the root against the larvae (CEXrL, LC50=46.0 ppm). The positive control induced mortality to both snails and larvae at 1ppm, while there was no mortality induced by the negative control. The results confirm solvent extracts of neem bark and root as potential biocidal agent against disease vectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Male: Female Ratio at Birth is Depressed by Maltese Parliamentary Elections and Increased by Other Non-electoral Events

Grech Victor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1123-1131
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/12672

Aim: The male to female ratio at birth declines with stress. In Malta, parliamentary elections are highly divisive and stressful. This paper looked at the association of M/F with parliamentary elections and other important political events in Malta.
Methodology: A retrospective analysis of monthly male and female births was carried out. These were obtained from official Malta Government publications back to 1966. Index months were months in which parliamentary elections were held. Eleven elections were included which comprised all those wherein elections were essentially contested by two parties between 1966-2013. The monthly sums for live births for each gender were summated for the months prior and following each election and for four other political but non-electoral events. Analysis was carried out with chi tests and chi tests for trend.
Results: This study analysed a total of 168795 live births. For the period 1966-2013, mean M/F was 0.5176 (95% CI 0.5156-0.5196). For elections, a peak in M/F was found at month -7, followed by a decline down to the election month, and this decline was statistically significant (p=0.005). The ensuing return to the baseline over the next few months did not reach statistical significance. The converse was noted in non-electoral events, with an increasing trend in M/F from month -10 to month -1 (p=0.003). This was followed by a significant decline from month-1 to month +4 (p=0.002).
Conclusions: In Malta, since the early 1970s, the country has developed one of the purest two-party systems in existence, a structure that has produced intense political polarization of most of the Maltese society. It possible that stress leading up to elections suffices to depress M/F in Malta. The converse occurred in relation to non-electoral events. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported instance wherein local elections and other political events influence M/F.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Prevalence of Hypocholesterolaemia among Antiretroviral Therapy-naive HIV-infected Children in Makurdi, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje, Ayodotun Olutola

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1132-1145
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11523

Aim: To determine the abnormalities in total cholesterol (TC) levels and the potential risk factors in ART–naive, HIV-infected Nigerian children.
Study Design: A retrospective and cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2010 and June 2012.
Methods: Electronic data of 429 HIV-infected ART-naive children, aged 1–15 years, including 223 males and 206 females, were analysed to get the relevant information for the study. Abnormal un-fasted TC levels and the association with potential risk factors were tested in bivariate regression analyses. Abnormal lipid level was defined as hypercholestrolaemia when the TC was>200mg/dL and hypocholesterolaemia when TC was Ë‚160mg/dl. Normal TC was value between 160 and 200mg/dl. P-value less than 0.05 was significant.
Results: The median age was 5.00 years with an interquartile range of 3.0 to 8.0 years. The TC ranged from 32 to 196 mg/dl with a mean value of 116±34.98mg/dl. Hypocholesterolaemia was the prominent finding in 88.3% (379/429) of the children. Hypercholestrolaemia was not found (0%). In bivariate analyses, no factor was found to significantly impact on hypocholesterolaemia, although a greater proportion of hypocholesterolaemia was seen in children: within 2-15 years age group (92.1%, 349/379); male gender (52.0%): HIV/AIDS stages 1&2 (82.6%); CD4 count>200 cell/mm3(81.5%); viral load>10,000 copies/ml (69.1%); hemoglobinË‚10g/dl (61.7%); stunting (55.4%, 102/207) and undernourishment with body mass index (BMI)Ë‚18.5 (83.7%, 164/222). Multivariate analysis was not done.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypocholesterolaemia was found among the ART-naive, HIV-infected Children, in Makurdi. The study could serve as a stimulus for our centre and other paediatric ART programmes in Nigeria to undertake an elaborate lipid profile of HIV infected children at diagnosis and on follow-up on ART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Allium sativum on Selected Pathogenic Strains

Osheke Shekins Okere, Janet Olayemi Sangodele, Moses Dele Adams, Eunice Ogunwole, Mercy Omoye Shafe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1146-1152
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11611

Allium sativum plants contain chemicals which can inhibit the growth of microorganisms and thus make them suitable to be used in different medicines. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Allium sativum methanolic extracts were investigated using standard analytical techniques and modern micro plate-based antibacterial assays techniques. The antibacterial of methanolic extract of Allium sativum were used on different bacteria strains which include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protea spp., Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal observation of Allium sativum was found to be active against Aspergilus flavus, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus fumigatus, Penicillium spp compared to Funbact-A (control). The susceptibility test showed that Allium sativum is more active against Aspergilus fumigatus. The Allium sativum had a higher zone of inhibition compared to Ciproflaxin (control) on the different bacteria strains. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger differs significantly in their degree of inhibition of methanolic extract of Allium sativum. The findings support the use of Allium sativum extract in treating bacterial infections and Aspergillosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Hygiene Practices and Health Status of Street-food Vendors in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Nguendo Yongsi H. Blaise

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1153-1170
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/10265




Background: From 1993, civil servants in Cameroon were subjected to a new working schedule, according to which, work starts every working day from 7.30am to 3.30pm with a short lunch break from 12 noon to 1.00pm. However, this new regulation was not accompanied by effective measures such as the creation of formal eating houses or canteens to ensure the provision of services that could satisfy the food needs of workers. Consequently, there has been a development and concentration of informal food vendors around public offices. While street foods are an important source of ready-to-eat nutritious, low-cost meals for the urban poor, the health risk posed by such foods may outweigh their benefits.
Objective: This study aims at assessing personal hygiene and health status of vendors involved in informal sales of food in Yaoundé.
Methods: In this cross-sectional epidemiological design, 837 food vendors were investigated through medical examinations notably stools analysis for ova and cysts of parasites. Questionnaires were also administered to the vendors. The vendors were selected from within the three main places in the city where people congregate: schools, market places, and government ministries/office.
Results: The personal hygiene of a majority of street-food vendors in Yaoundé (87, 1%) is of low and this is reflected on their health status because among the 837 food vendors enrolled in the study, 379 were found infected with one or more faeco-orally transmissible parasites, a 45% prevalence rate.
Conclusion: There is the need to improve the personal hygiene of food vendors in Cameroon in order to reduce the prevalence of food-related diseases. This can be done through adequate sensitization programmes on personal and food hygiene and the development of food handling policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Neonatal Jaundice among Community Health Workers in Southern Nigeria

P. I. Opara, B. A. Alex-Hart, D. A. Dotimi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1171-1178
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/13024

Aim: The study aimed to assess the knowledge of community Health Workers (CHWs) on neonatal jaundice (NNJ), exploring their perceptions, knowledge and practices.
Study Design: It was a cross sectional study of randomly selected CHWs who were attending a child health workshop in Southern Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during a workshop in Yenegoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Methods: Simple structured questionnaires were distributed to all health workers who gave consent to participate in the study. These were retrieved by the authors as soon as they were filled. Information obtained included biodata, length of practice, knowledge of causes, complications and management of NNJ.
Results: There were 200 participants, 91 males and 109 females giving a male to female ratio of 1: 1.2. The mean duration of service was 6.01±4.97 years. 191 (95%) had fair to adequate knowledge of description of NNJ. However only about 25% of respondents had good knowledge of its causes. Antibiotics and glucose water were perceived by 60.4% and 37.5% of CHWs as useful drugs in the management of NNJ, while 82% would recommend sunlight as effective treatment. Work experience was significantly associated with knowledge of the use of EBT and phototherapy in the treatment of NNJ with those less than 5 years having better knowledge than the older ones.
Conclusion: CHWs may recognize NNJ but knowledge on causes and treatment is inadequate and may cause potential delays in referral for effective treatment. There is need for regular training and re-training of health workers to ensure effective management and reduce the complications of NNJ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Physiological Parameters of Rehabilitative Stroke Patients

M. O. Moses, P. O. Nyampong, J. K. Segede, R. Amponsah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1179-1190
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/13014

Aim: Stroke constitutes a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in any society. Despite the increasing effect of stroke, information about the prophylactic effect of aerobics exercise on the health disorder in Ghana is rare. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) training on rehabilitative stroke patients considering their body mass index (BMI), resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP), resting diastolic blood pressure (RDBP), resting heart rate (RHR) and resting blood oxygen saturation (RSp02).
Study Design: Quasi-experimental research design with pre-post test was employed.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at physiotherapy clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. The AE training and measurement were conducted from November, 2013 to April, 2014 in the gymnasium of the physiotherapy clinic.
Methodology: The study comprised of fifty rehabilitative stroke [partial (36, 72.0%) and permanent (14, 28.0%)] patients with mean age of 54.04±13.07 years attending physiotherapy clinic. Age ranged from 26 to 80 years. The patients [male (27, 54.0%) and female (23, 46.0%)] went through moderate intensity, two sections a week of AE training for two months. Forty (80.0%) of the participants has experience in exercise programme while ten (20.0%) has none prior to the AE training programme. Physiological parameters of BMI, RSBP, RDBP, RHR and RSp02 were measured two days before and after the AE training period, and analysed.
Results: The BMI (24.89±3.56 vs 23.11±2.89; t=9.237, p<0.05), RSBP (131.48±23.43 vs 120.94±7.42; t = 3.468, p<0.05), RDBP (87.70±16.03 vs 79.50±6.26, t = 3.577, p<0.05), RHR (84.22±8.47 vs 74. 22±3.80; t = 8.879, p<0.05) and RSp02 (93.44± 5.14 vs 96.56±1.98; t =-4.905, p<0.05) significantly changed after two months of AE training. There is significant difference in gender-based analysis on the effect of AE training on BMI (22.36 ±2.70 vs23.99±3.00; t=-2.058, p<0.05) and RDBP (81.63±5.83 vs 77.00± 5.92; t=2.779, p<0.05). There was no significant differences in the effect of AE training on physiological parameters analysed based on degree of stroke and exercise experience.
Conclusion: AE training was effective on the BMI, RSBP, RDBP, RHR and RSp02 of rehabilitative stroke patients irrespective of gender and degree of stroke. Significance attention should be given to aerobic exercise in the rehabilitating process of stroke patients to minimize adverse affects of some drugs on their blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Candiduria in Infants from a Tertiary Care Hospital

S. Malhotra, S. Sharma, N. J. K. Bhatia, K. Jangid, C. Hans

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1191-1197
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/11908

Yeast related urinary tract infections are rare in healthy newborns. Study was conducted in the department of microbiology in a tertiary care hospital, New Delhi from June 2012 to June 2013. Only infants were included in the study. A total of three hundred and thirty three urine samples were received for fungal culture and microscopy. The isolation rate of Candida species amongst the 333 samples was found to be 21.62%. Amongst 333 samples received 37 (11.11%) were positive for Candida albicans while 35 (10.51%) were positive for non albicans Candida species. So, in this study among 72 isolates of Candida, Candida albicans was found in 51.39% while non-albicans Candida species was found to be in 48.61% of the Candida isloates. It is important that the specific species responsible for symptomatic infection is identified, given the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility among Candida species.