Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Seasonal Variation and Climatic Influences on the Male to Female Ratio of Live Births in Malta

Grech Victor, Borg Tania

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 123-129
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14092

Aims: In humans, male births occur in excess of female births. The ratio of male births to total births (MFR) is expected to approximate 0.515. Many factors have been shown to influence MRF and a seasonal pattern has also been described. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether seasonal variation in MRF exists in Maltese live births and whether environmental influences exert any role.
Methods: Monthly live births subdivided by gender, were obtained from official Maltese government publications for the period 1958-2013. Analysis was carried out with SPSS, the Bio-Med-Stat Excel add-in for contingency tables and Demetra, using chi square tests, ANOVA, Freidman and Kruskall-Wallis tests, correlation, regression, and ARIMA models. Mean annual temperatures were available to 1958. Monthly data for maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, relative mean humidity, lowest relative humidity, hours of bright sunshine and rainfall was only available for 2001 to 2012.
Results: This study analysed 297254 live births (153652 males and 143602 females, MRF 0.5169, 95% CI 0.5151-0.5187). MRF exhibited a non-significant bimodal pattern (June and December peak). MRF displayed a significant negative correlation between MRF and average mean yearly temperature (p=0.049). There was an association between monthly mean relative humidity and MRF (p = 0.03).
Discussion: The nonsignificant seasonal pattern seen accords with that previously documented for other countries but the negative MRF correlation with mean annual temperature goes contrary to that previously documented in other countries. The humidity association has not been previously described.
Conclusion: Some seasonal variation may exist in MFR in Malta.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Japanese Decline in Secondary Sex Ratio Correlates with Percentage Change in GDP/Annum

Grech Victor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 130-135
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14340

Background: Male births occur in excess of female births. The ratio of male:female births is commonly referred to as M/F and is expected to approximate 0.515. Stress has been shown to decrease M/F due to an increased rate of male spontaneous abortions. Since Japan’s economy declined after the mid-1970s, this study was carried out in order to ascertain whether there was any relationship between M/F and annual change in percentage gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan.
Methods: Annual male and female live births were obtained from a World Health Organisation Mortality database. GDP data was downloaded as an Excel sheet from the website of the World Bank. Data for both variables was available for the period 1961-2009.
Results: This study analysed 71878631 total live births. There was an overall and abrupt decline in M/F which commenced in 1975 (0.5149, from 0.5155 in 1974), one year after the decline in percentage annual GDP growth which fell from 8.0% to -1.22 from 1973 to 1974. M/F correlated with percentage annual GDP growth (r=0.4, p=0.005).
Conclusion: M/F is increasing overall in Asia, but decreasing in Japan, as is the trend in developing countries. This country exhibits a rise in GDP change along with M/F in boom years, followed by a progressive fall in both values, which occurs almost in parallel, especially after 1980. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first time that M/F has been linked with percentage annual GDP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Effect of Flavonoid 5, 7, 4’-Trimethoxyflavone against Candida krusei Strains

Abrahão Alves de Oliveira Filho, Heloísa Mara Batista Fernandes, Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Gabriela Lemos de Azevedo Maia, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Thais Josy Castro Freire de Assis, Hilzeth Luna Freire Pêssoa, Edeltrudes Oliveira Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 36-140
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14060

Most of the flavonoids are considered as constitutive antimicrobial ingredients, especially those belonging to prenylated flavonoids, flavones and isoflavones. In the study, the flavonoid 5,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone was evaluated for its antifungal effects. Four fungal strains were used in the study for activities, Candida krusei – LM 9700, Candida krusei – LM 656, Candida krusei– LM 13 and Candida krusei – LM08. All the microorganism strains were obtained from the Laboratory of Mycology collection. Microdilution method was used for antifungal assay of the flavonoid. The results were also compared with the standard drug, Nistatin (100 UI/mL). The obtained results showed activity fungistatic against Candida krusei strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in Maharashtra, India: Important Lessons for Implementation

P. P. Doke, U. H. Gawande, S. R. Deshpande, M. Gadgil

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 141-155
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/13800

Aims: The study was conducted to estimate the proportion of eligible women for Janani Suraksha Yojana and to understand the factors affecting receipt of benefits in Maharashtra State, India.
Methodology: It was as comparative observational study conducted in Maharashtra State having a population of 112.37 million. Each district was divided into five strata tribal, rural, Municipal Council, slum and non-slum in Municipal Corporation. In each district about 2400 household were surveyed comprising proportionate quotas from each stratum. Surveying unit from each stratum was randomly selected. The study population consisted women delivered in 2008-2009 year. Firstly Head of household was interviewed for confirming child delivery in the reference period. Then delivered woman was interviewed for checking eligibility to JSY and then details of receipt of benefits were obtained from her. Receivers and non-receivers of benefits were compared with respect to some variables. The study was undertaken with the help of Community Medicine Department from Government Medical Colleges.
Results: In the reference period 4,544 women delivered children and 41.15% were found eligible for the scheme. But only 52.57% certainly received cash benefits. About 24% surely did not receive and 23% were not sure about receipt or the scheme and hence included in non-receiver group for further analysis.
Non-earning women, not delivered in public health care institutions and un-aware about the scheme were unlikely to receive the benefits. Ante Natal Care visits, immunization, receipt and consumption of Iron and Folic Acid tablets were better among beneficiaries then non-receivers of the benefits. The benefits were not received immediately after delivery. About 10% women had problems in receiving the benefits, particularly requirement of certain certificates.
Conclusion: The uptake of the scheme may be slightly higher than 53% and there are many factors responsible for not reaching to entire eligible population. Modifiable risk factors like delivery in government health institution and awareness about the scheme are playing major role in receiving the benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality in a Suburban Hospital in Jos, North -Central Nigeria

Bose O. Toma, Mark Gyang, Halima Abdu, David Shwe, I. A. Ekere, Marcia Ihekaike

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 156-164
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/12683

Background: Even though there has been some decline in childhood mortality, figures still remain high in sub- Saharan Africa. The pattern of morbidity and mortality in health care institutions may be a reflection of the disease burden of the community which it serves and will facilitate prevention/ control strategies. This study was conducted to determine the pattern of paediatric morbidity and mortality in a secondary level hospital in a sub – urban area in Jos, North – central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study is a review of paediatric admissions into the Vom Christian Hospital. Relevant data on all children who were admitted into the Vom Christian Hospital between May 2012 and April 2013 with medical conditions were retrieved from the admissions records. Data were entered into excel spread sheet and analyzed using Epi info 7. A p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 334 children aged between one day and 15 years were admitted during the period, out of which 235 (70.4%) were children less than 5 years old. Infections (221, 66.2%) were the major causes of morbidity. Out of all the 334 admissions, 304(91%) were discharged, 7 (2.1%) left against medical advice, 6(1.8%) were referred, while 17 (5.1%) died. Malaria was the commonest cause of morbidity (102, 30.5%) and mortality (6, 35.3%). Severe protein energy malnutrition had the highest case fatality rate (25%).
Conclusion: The burden of paediatric morbidity and mortality is in children under 5 years and are mainly preventable. An emphasis on malaria eradication and child survival strategies will help to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates in Patients of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

R. K. Mahajan, Shweta Sharma, Geetika Rana, R. C. Vashishtha

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 165-169
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/13766

Introduction: CSOM is a massive public health problem with incidence higher in developing countries like India, especially among low socio-economic society because of malnutrition, overcrowding, poor hygiene, inadequate health care, and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. It is associated with various complications like persistent otorrhoea, hearing impairment, mastoiditis, labyrinthitis, facial nerve paralysis to more serious intracranial abscesses etc. The knowledge of microbiological profile is essential to enable efficacious treatment of this disease & thereby reducing the potential risk of complications.
Methodology: This study was aimed to determine the microbial profile & their antimicrobial resistance pattern using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method among the patients suffering from CSOM between April 2013 to March 2014. Results: Out of 216 samples processed, isolates were seen in 145 (67.1%) cases with male to female ratio of 1.5: 1 and age group affected was 10-20 years. Most common organism isolated was Pseudomonas spp. (49%) followed by S. aureus (35.9%). Pseudomonas spp. showed high degree of resistance to gentamicin (57.7%) and ciprofloxacin (53.5%). Also, S. aureus was found resistant to ciprofloxacin (61.5%) and cotrimoxazole (40.4%).
Conclusion: Management of CSOM consists mainly of eradicating infection and closure of tympanic membrane. Periodical monitoring of bacterial isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern is necessary for administering appropriate antibiotics for empirical treatment and also helps in reducing the potentially disabling and fatal complications of CSOM.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Arsenal against Leishmaniases: A Review

Janaína B. de Menezes, Tamires A. da Silva, Luciano A. M. Grillo, Camila B. Dornelas

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 101-122
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/13391

Leishmaniases are included in the group of reemerging neglected tropical diseases caused by flagellated parasites of the Leishmania genus. WHO recommends the use of chemotherapy as the main control measure for all the types of the disease. Antimonials are the first drug of choice, but they can be replaced by amphotericin B, mitelfosine, paromomycin and pentamidine isethionate, or combinations. Generally, all the medicines that contain these drugs have several drawbacks. In view of this, chemotherapy for Leishmaniasis is increasingly the object of study, searching for safer or more effective drugs or new drug delivery vehicles, where nanotechnology is crucial. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the therapeutic arsenal available in the market and that has been investigated for this application.