Open Access Original Research Article

Surveillance of Injury in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India: A Hospital Based Study

Munesh Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Gour, Raj Bahadur, Dhiraj Srivastava, Sanjay Chaudhary

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/15207

Introduction: Injury is a major, preventable public health problem in terms of morbidity, premature mortality or disability. This study aims to assess the epidemiology of injury in patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in northern India.
Materials and Methods: Observational, Descriptive, secondary data based study of injury patients admitted in surgical emergency department of Government Medical College Hospital Chandigarh from July 2009 to June 2010.
Results: Out of these total 7222 patients, 4129(57.2%) were of Road Traffic Accident (RTA) and 22.8% were of Assault. Male were at high risk of RTA. Although, overall males were at higher risk of assault but middle aged women were at higher risk than their counterparts. For ‘fall ‘females were at high risk. Assault cases were more prevalent during summer, while RTA cases were more prevalent during winter season and fall during rainy season were reportedly more. Majority (33.0%) of RTA injury was in the age group of 20-39 years(most productive age) and in the age group of <10 years falls were most common (56.0% of all injury).

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Care Seeking Behavior for Malaria among Laboratory Confirmed Outpatients in a Rural Community, Southern Nigeria

Jephtha C. Nmor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/11814

Background: For effective malaria control at the community level, information on the treatment practices are essential. However, there is no information on malaria treatment practices in Ibusa community. Thus, this study seeks to assess the prevalence of malaria and health care seeking behaviors in Ibusa community.
Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Ibusa, Oshimili North Local Government area in Nigeria. The study was untaken between June and November, 2006.
Methods: Malaria treatment practices including sources of anti-malarial of the 600 individuals who visited the Fenlab Diagnostic and Research Laboratory Ibusa, Delta State were obtained using a previously validated structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection and species identification.
Results: The prevalence rate was found to be 73.3% and all were infections of Plasmodium falciparium. The age prevalence showed an undulating pattern however, the prevalence was highest among subjects within age group 20-29 years (31.81%) and least in age group 40-49 years (8.64%). Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference (X2 =13.61, df=5, P=0.183). The prevalence by sex showed higher values in females (60.22%) than males (39.78%), but the difference was not statistically significant at (X2=0.027, df=1, P=0.870). The malaria management practices showed that 20.83% participants buy anti-malarials from shops, 17.33% visit hospitals, while 16.33% employ traditional medicine from local healers. However, some of the subjects employ a combination of approaches. 13.83% get anti-malarials from shops, hospitals and local healers, 10.50% get anti-malarials from shops and hospitals, 9.67% visit local healers and hospitals, while 0.33% do not employ any treatment practices.
Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of malaria infection in Ibusa community, proper education of the people on the need to employ proper malaria treatment practice is essential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of HCV and HBV Co-infections in HIV Positive Patient in City of Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Fatemeh Saleh, Hossein Azizi, Farnaz Kheirandish, Fariborz Rashnou, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Fatollah Movahedi, Maryam Azizi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/13282

Aims: One of the current crises of the society is prevalence rate of viral co-infection of hepatitis B and C among HIV patients.HIV, HBV, and HCV are major public health concerns. Because of shared routes of transmission, HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV-HBV coinfection are common. HIV-positive persons are at risk of being infected with HBV and HCV. Frequency of co-infection with HBV and HCV in HIV-patients is depended on the geographic regions and the type of exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV co-infection in one of the medical educational centers of Lorestan province, Iran.
Study Design: This Cross-sectional One Shot Case Study Design to determine the prevalence of concurrent viral infection in the city of Khorramabad, Iran.
Place and Duration of Study: Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran and Shohadaye Ashayer hospital, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was designed in 2013 in order to study the prevalence of co-infection among 500 outpatients and inpatients referring to Shohadaye Ashayer Hospital, Khorramabad, Lorestan province. The existence of specific antigen and antibody against the virus was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. (Demographic information was extracted from the patients' medical files and frequency of three viruses was calculated according to demographics information.
Results: 103 out of 500 studied serum samples were infected with HBV, HCV, and HIV viruses. Maximum infection was in the age range of more than 40 years old, which was equal to 23 patients (24.7%). 58 out of 103 samples were inpatients, 18 (9.4%) of whom were co-infected. 3 out of 103 studied samples (5.9%) who were co-infected with HIV/HBV/HCV were male. On the other hand, 4 (3.9%) male patients were infected with HIV/HBV and 4 (7.8%) male patients were co-infected with HBV/HCV. Also, 23 (22.3%) patients were co-infected with HIV/HCV; one (1.9%) was female and 22 (43.1%) were male.
Conclusion: Patients who have both hepatitis B and C infections when are associated with HIV infection the disease becomes more severe. By obtain frequency, relationship was detected between hospital care of patients and prevalence of con-infection. Due to frequent injections in the hospital and taking blood and its products, inpatients were more susceptible to infection than outpatients. So, the probability of their infection with viruses was higher than outpatients. This issue is a disturbing factor in medicinal centers which should receive more attention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Quality and Antibiotic Residues in Raw Beef from Selected Abattoirs in Accra, Ghana

K. K. Addo, V. Y. Adjei, G. I. Mensah, D. Jackson-Sillah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14759

Aims: To determine the microbial quality and the presence of antibiotic residues in raw beef from four major abattoirs in Accra, Ghana.
Study Design: Cross sectional.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were obtained from the four major abattoirs namely; Madina, Tema (GIHOC), Accra, Amasaman and the University of Ghana (UG) Farms, transferred immediately to the Bacteriology Laboratory, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, for processing. The study was carried out between June 2013 and April, 2014.
Methodology: Raw beef samples were aseptically collected from 200 cattle slaughtered for consumption. Total plate count, presence of foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, E. coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Shigella species were determined after culture and incubation on standard microbiological media. Both liver and kidney samples were also collected from each of the 200 carcasses and tested for antibiotic residues using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany).
Results: The total plate counts in all the samples from the abattoirs ranged between 8.3x103 – 5.5x105 cfu/g. A total of 43 pathogens were isolated. Of this number, 30 (69.76%) were E. coli, 8 (18.69%) S. aureus, 2 (4.65%) Salmonella Typhimurium, 2 (4.65%) L. monocytogenes and 1 (2.3%) Yersinia enterocolitica. Fifty-nine strains from other species were also isolated: Bacillus spp. (21), Enterobacter spp. (18), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1), Aeromonas spp. (3), coliforms (12) and Klebsiella spp. (4). None of the E. coli isolated were positive for O157: H7. Overall, 18% of both the liver and kidney samples were positive for the presence of antibiotic residues but the kidneys recorded the highest (12%) percentage of positive whilst the liver recorded (6%).
Conclusion: Beef at the abattoirs were contaminated with foodborne pathogens and antibiotic residues, however, the total aerobic counts were within the acceptable range considered safe for human consumption. Detection of pathogens and antibiotic residues in beef is of public health concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Stress, Civil Unrest and the Male to Female Ratio at Birth in Chile, Argentina, Australia and Finland

Grech Victor

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14429

Introduction: Male live births occur slightly in excess of female births but the ratio is influenced by a very large variety of factors. This ratio is remarkably stable but may exhibit sudden shifts in response to influences such as population stress. A World Health Organisation dataset comprising annual live births by year and country was analysed not only to pinpoint outlier values but also to attempt to identify historical causes for such outliers.
Methods: The WHO HFA (Health for All) mortality database was used to identify outlier M/F values. Data was analysed using chi tests and chi tests for trend. Comparison for years of interest were made against baselines of only up to five years before and after such years since M/F exhibits potentially confounding long-term secular variations.
Results:
Chile: There was a significant difference in M/F between the period 1967-1971 and 1972 (p<0.0001). There was a decline over 1972-1976 (p<0.0001).
Argentina: Increases were noted in 1978, 1988 and 1994 (p<0.0001).
Australia: M/F rose sharply in 1956 (p=0.0008).
Finland: There were increases in 1962 and 1971 (p<0.0001).
Discussion: Stress has been shown to affect M/F. Almost all of the observed outliers were temporally associated with political events or political decisions that influenced the respective countries’ economies. M/F ratios worldwide provide tantalising hints that even transient stress may influence this ratio, making it a sensitive indicator of overall population stress.