Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of School Health Services among Private and Government Owned Schools of Belgaum

Divyae Kansal, Sulakshana S. Baliga, M. D. Mallapur, S. M. Katti

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14972

Introduction: Children are the creators and the shapers of tomorrow and school marks an important early milestone in the child’s life long journey of intellectual and psychological development.
Objective: To assess the school health services in government and private schools of Belgaum.
Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at 3 Primary Health Centres and 3 Urban Health Centres in Belgaum. All the government and private schools were selected and necessary data of child school health services was collected based on criteria recommended by Indian Academy of Pediatrics.
Results: Of the total schools, 53.76% of schools provided hygienic drinking water, 64% of the schools did not have adequate toilet facilities, 30% of schools did not have adequate ventilation and lighting, 34.40% of schools did not have playground and 90% of schools did not have safe and proper transportation facility. When private and government schools were compared private schools were better in providing services like safe and proper transportation, properly ventilated and illuminated class rooms ,where as kitchen facility was available more in government schools (p<0.05).
Conclusion: We found that none of the schools met all the 10 criteria. Although 50% of them followed 4 to 5 criteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Status of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination among Female Undergraduate Students in a Nigerian University

B. A. Alex-Hart, B. A. N. Okoh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 6-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/15468

Aims: The study aimed to determine the level of awareness and status of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination among female undergraduates in Port Harcourt.
Study Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out among female undergraduate students.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in University of Port Harcourt from 1st to 31st of May 2014.
Methodology: A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 512 female students selected through a Multi-Staged sampling technique. Information sought included socio-demographics, awareness of TT vaccine, knowledge of the vaccination campaign for women of childbearing age and TT vaccination status. Data was analyzed using epi info version
Results: A total of 512 students participated in the study; mean age was 22±2.79 years. Four hundred and eighty five (94.7%) and 409 (79.9%) students had heard of tetanus and TT vaccine respectively. Commonest sources of information were health workers. 33.8% knew the target population for the TT vaccination campaign and 18.2% knew that the correct number of doses of TT is 5 doses. Two hundred and ninety eight (58.2%) and 10 (2%) students had received at least 1 dose and 5 doses of TT respectively. Students who had knowledge of the target population for TT vaccination campaign (OR=2.14, p=0.003) and those who were confident in the effectiveness of TT (OR=2.41, p<0.001) were twice more likely to receive at least a dose of TT vaccine.
Conclusion: There was poor knowledge of TT vaccination campaign for women of childbearing age and very poor coverage of TT5 among the female undergraduate students in Port Harcourt. Female undergraduate students should be reached during TT vaccination campaigns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nasopharyngyeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, in Children under Five Years at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda

Irama Maxenzio, Bazira Joel

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/11595

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, causing 25-30% of all deaths in developing countries. Pneumococcal disease is a significant public health problem that usually follows pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynix. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae among under fives attending Maternal Child Health Clinic at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH).
Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study between August and November 2012. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from four hundred healthy children were cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37â°C in carbon dioxide jar. Upon growth the organisms were identified by colonial appearance and standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial resistance to six antibiotics was performed using Kirby Bauer method on chocolate agar and interpreted according to CLSI guide lines.
Results: The prevalence of S. pneumoniae in the cultured samples was reported at 19% (76/400). Of the positive isolates, 75/76 (99%) and 55/76 (77%) were shown to be resistant to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline, respectively. Among the factors assessed for nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae none was significantly associated with carriage.
Conclusion: Despite the low rate of carriers of S. pneumoniae, a remarkable resistance of these isolates to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gestational Diabetes in a Tertiary Healthcare Centre at Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria: A Five Year Retrospective Review

C. F. Chukwunyere, D. O. Awonuga, U. Igwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14300

Background: Women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and maternal morbidities. Hence early detection and management of this condition is vital to ensure better outcome for both mother and baby [1,2].
Approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by diabetes mellitus, resulting in more than 2000000 cases annually.1 The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) ranges from 1 to 14% of all pregnancies, depending on the population studied and the diagnostic test employed [8,9].
In the recent years, there had been a rapid rise in the incidence of diabetes in pregnancy. This is due to the increasing number of women in the reproductive age population with pre-gestational diabetes (type 2 DM) and increase in the number of women being diagnosed with gestational diabetes [2].
Aim: To determine the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus at Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta and to evaluate the feto-maternal outcome of their pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This study is a 5 year retrospective review of gestational diabetes mellitus cases at the Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta (between 2009 to 2013) as well as the outcomes of these pregnancies.
A proforma was used to collect data from case notes of all gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) cases diagnosed within the stated period. All pregnant women in 24 weeks of gestation and above who are considered to be at risk after undergoing preliminary clinical examination were given a 75g oral glucose load, using the WHO standardized oral glucose tolerance test [4,5]. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed if 2 hour plasma glucose was ≥140 mg/dl.
Results: The incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus was found to be 1.13% of the pregnancies. Overall, there was a preponderance of GDM mothers with tertiary level of education (34.15%). The majority of mothers with GDM in this study, had maternal age ≥31yrs (78.1%), increased body mass index ≥25 (82.9%) and previous intrauterine fetal death (28.3%). Many of the women (48.78%) had parity of 2-3 and various complications were seen in 43.9% of mothers and 22% of the newborns. Caesarean section as the mode of delivery was significantly high at 61%.
Conclusion: The morbidities associated with gestational diabetes are still enormous and timely screening of mothers could be beneficial in reducing the complications seen in gestational diabetes mellitus mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of the Accuracy of the Use of Last Menstrual Period and Symphysio-Fundal Height for Gestational Age Determination among Nigerian Women

A. E. Ogbe, C. C. Ekwempu, J. Musa, A. S. Anzaku

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/15826

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the symphysio-fundal height (SFH) in comparison to the last menstrual period (LMP) for gestational age assessment.
Study Design: Hospital-based prospective cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Maternity unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria, between December 2012 and April 2013.
Methodology: A total of 289 consecutive consenting women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies at gestational ages of less than or equal to 20 weeks were recruited at the maternity unit of Jos University Teaching Hospital between December 2012 and April 2013. Ultrasound scan (USS) was used to confirm eligibility after which other information including the LMP were documented on a questionnaire. The women returned after 22 weeks’ gestation based on ultrasound recorded GA for SFH assessment and some weeks thereafter for a second SFH assessment.
Results: Mean age of the women was 28.9±4.8 years with a range of 16-42 years. Most of them were of parity 1 – 4 (58.1%). The mean GA at booking was 15.3±3.1 weeks based on LMP and 14.9±3.1 from early ultrasound scan. The mean percentage accuracy for SFH method compared to USS dating was 95.8% while that of LMP was 91.0%. This difference was found to be statistically significant (P = .02).
Conclusion: The study showed a significant difference between the LMP and early ultrasound scan dating but not between SFH and early ultrasound scan. Also, the mean percentage accuracy was statistically higher for SFH, suggesting that SFH was a more accurate tool for gestational age assessment among these women.