Open Access Short Research Article

Health Education Program on Leptospirosis among College Students in Chennai, South India

S. M. Jacob, K. Sivasangeetha, K. M. Sushi, G. Thatchinamoorthy, D. Anitha, A. Ganesan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 172-177
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/16547

Aim: To determine the level of knowledge on leptospirosis among college students in Chennai, India before and after the health education program.
Study Design: Interventional study
Place and Duration of the Study: Seven Arts and Science colleges in Chennai, India between
January and June 2014.
Methodology: After getting prior permission from the Principals of the colleges, the students who were willing to take part in the study were requested to fill serially numbered and labeled semi-structured questionnaire (A&B). Questionnaire included demographics and questions on awareness of leptospirosis, risk factors, mode of transmission, symptoms and human vaccine. Questionnaire A was filled (anonymously) and collected after which the education on leptospirosis was provided as a power point presentation. At the end of the program, students filled questionnaire B and submitted. Statistical analysis was done using McNemar test.
Results: Out of 501 students, 28% were males and 72% were females. Age of the students ranged from 16 to 37 years with mean of 20.46 years, SD 3.477. Seventy five percent were Hindus, 20% were Christians and 5% were Muslims. Only 36% of the students were aware that Leptospirosis was common in Chennai while after the program 84% were aware of leptospirosis (P< .001). Knowledge on the risk factors of leptospirosis increased significantly after the program (P < .001). Pre awareness assessment revealed poor knowledge on the modes of transmission of leptospirosis and on symptoms of the disease such as fever and jaundice which increased significantly after the intervention (P < .001). Knowledge on human vaccine was found to be less in the initial survey which improved significantly after the awareness program (P < .001).
Conclusions: There was significant increase in the knowledge on leptospirosis among the students after the health education program. Such programs are needed to be carried out for a wider dissemination of information.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Analysis of Dengue Cases in Suriname: Implications for Treatment and Prevention in a Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC)

Diana Hamer, Arti E. R. Jessurun, Manodj Hindori, John Codrington, Jimmy Roosblad, Maureen Lichtveld

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 132-143
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/17487

Aims: To describe hospitalized dengue cases and characterize the hospitalization length and cost of dengue based on clinical and laboratory classification in a primary hospital in Paramaribo, Suriname.
Study Design: A retrospective study was conducted to identify patients at higher risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and to compare the length and cost of hospitalization by dengue classification and dengue severity.
Methodology: We analyzed 2800 dengue cases hospitalized between 2001 to 2012. All dengue cases were spatially visualized using a geographic information system (GIS).Dengue cases were stratified by demographic characteristics and classified as suspected, probable and confirmed. This classification was used to compare length and cost of hospitalization.
Results: The majority of hospitalized dengue cases, 50.1%, were ethnic Hindustani or Javansese (Southeast Asian descent). Dengue was laboratory confirmed in a 188 cases between 2001 and 2012. However, ethnicity is not associated with progression into DHF in hospitalized cases with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue. When comparing length of hospitalization, suspected dengue cases stayed on average longer hospitalized (7.81 days) than probable (6.65 days) and confirmed cases (6.29 days). In contrast, confirmed cases had the highest cost of hospitalization (3100 Surinamese dollars – SRD) compared to suspected (2766 SRD) and confirmed (2157 SRD) cases. Suspected and probable dengue fever cases had longer hospital stays compared to the more severe DHF. There is a difference in the length and cost of hospitalization among suspected, probable and confirmed dengue cases and dengue fever cases have longer hospitalization terms than DHF for suspected and probable cases.
Conclusion: This study contributed to the limited evidence of the demographic characteristics and the economic burden of dengue in Suriname. There is a need to standardize and increase diagnosis capabilities to improve surveillance and treatment of dengue while reducing hospitalization costs in Suriname.

Open Access Original Research Article

Primary Pyomyositis: Its Socioeconomic Effects; A Community Overview. A Qualitative Study Design

David Lagoro Kitara, Paul Okot Bwangamoi, Henry Wabinga, Michael Odida

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 144-155
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14726

Aims: To assess the community’s views on the socioeconomic effects of primary pyomyositis to patients, family, health facilities and community.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study design using qualitative research methods
Place and Duration of Study: Gulu Regional and other Hospitals in Northern Uganda from September 2011 to November 2013.
Methodology: The study was conducted among patients with primary pyomyositis, next of kin, health workers and opinion leaders on their views on the socioeconomic effects of pyomyositis. Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews were used to obtain qualitative information. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Gulu University IRB and the National Council of Science and Technology (UNCS&T). Thematic content analysis was used for analysis of this qualitative data.
Results: Primary pyomyositis has several socioeconomic effects to patients, family, health facilities and communities. The effects of the disease ranges from simple disability to inability to earn a living thus deepening the economic status/crisis of individuals, families and communities. It creates series of social problems that make local leaders become less useful to their communities and also sets-in marriage related problems. Education of the school going children are usually affected leading to school dropout.
Conclusion: There is a wide range of socioeconomic effects of primary pyomyositis to the population of Northern Uganda and it is presented with a number of socioeconomic effects similar to those chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen in Asymptomatic Children in Lagos State, Nigeria

F. O. Olufemi, Quadri Remi, O. B. Shittu, S. A. Bamiro, P. A. Akinduti

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 156-162
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/15986

Aim: Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSAg) is associated with chronic antral gastritis and peptic ulceration among young children. The major transmission mechanism is most probably fecal-oral infection among children.
Study Design: To study the prevalence and associated demographic variables among school children in Lagos, Nigeria.
Place of Study: Alimosho and Ajeromi Local Government Areas of Lagos state, Nigeria between months March and September 2014
Methodology: Fecal samples of 185 apparently healthy children aged between 2 and 16 years were collected by randomized stratified sampling with respective constructive and informative questionnaire. Fecal samples were analysed for Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSAg) using immunoassay test kit for HpSAg.
Result: Of the 185 children surveyed, high rate of HpSAg fecal positivity was found among ages 5 to 7 (21.6%) with no association with age group (p=0.149,OR= 0.67, CI=0.142-0.156). Fecal positivity among household population reveal high rate of 49.3% among 6 to 7 number of people living together, significant rate of 44.1% was recorded among the artisan but no association with the number of the people living together (p=0.004, OR=0.0, CI= 0.003-0.040). Significant high positive rate of 46.5% was observed among population that never had water availability (p=0.013, OR=0.0; CI=0.010-0.015) and 73.5% prevalence rate was observed. There is significant association (p <0.05) between HpSAg positivity and closeness of their kitchen and water source while no relationship was observed with household population, constant availability of water, maternal educational level, weight and gender.
Conclusion: Prevalence HpSAg among asymptomatic children is high in overcrowded households and in families with low socioeconomic standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clonality of Mycobacterium ulcerans by Using VNTR-MIRU Typing in Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire), West Africa

Kakou Ngazoa E. Solange, Coulibaly N. David, Aka Nguetta, Vakou Sabine, Aoussi Serge, Dosso Mireille

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 163-171
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/16321

Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is neglected skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The lack of early diagnosis and treatment causes severe disability. In Central and in West Africa, BU is endemic and its control is difficult because the most cases occur in rural regions. The molecular particularity of M. ulcerans was the acquisition of the virulence plasmid pMUM001. Genetic analyses have demonstrated the high diversity with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRU) in M. ulcerans and in mycolactone producing Mycobacteria (MPMs).
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity by using MIRU-VNTR method in clinical samples of BU patients in Côte d’Ivoire.
Study Design: 21 clinical samples were collected from BU patients in different sites and were first analyzed in molecular diagnosis of BU using two targets insertion sequence IS2404 and keto reductase-B-domain (KR). In a second step, we have analyzed the strains by PCR typing for four specific and sensitive markers MIRU1, VNTR6, ST-1 and VNTR19.
Results and Conclusion: 100% of clinical samples were positive in molecular tests for IS2404 and 95% for KR and confirm M. ulcerans in the samples. By PCR typing, we have found 61.9 % positive for MIRU1 and 52%, 85.7%, and 61.9% for VNTR6, ST-1 and VNTR19 respectively. One of sample was negative for all genotyping markers. Two different genetic profiles were identified by MIRU1 and ST-1 loci by gel-analyzed of the amplified products. The VNTR profile C (3,1,1) corresponding of 3 copies MIRU1, 1 copy VNTR6 and 1 copy ST-1 was detected in 28.5% of samples and confirms the West African genotype in Côte d’Ivoire. Different genetic strains of M. ulcerans were co-circulated in the same endemic region in the country. This study has described first the circulating of different genetic strains of M. ulcerans in Côte d’Ivoire.