Open Access Case Study

Prevalence of Anti-HBc in HIV Patients on ART in Ekiti, Nigeria

Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye, Atiba Adetona, Oluremi Adeolu Sunday, Ojo Johnson, Odewale Gbolabo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 75-78
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/17400

Background: In HIV –infected individuals, anti-HBc which is an indicator of occult hepatitis B is a common phenomenon
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the sero-epidemiology and associated risk factors among HIV-infected individuals in Ikole Ekiti, Nigeria.
Study Population and Duration: HIV/AIDS individuals visiting Institute of Human Virology of Nigeria, Specialist Clinic, Ikole Ekiti between November 2012 and April 2013 were included in this study.
Methodology: One hundred and eighty eight HIV samples were tested for anti-Hepatitis B core antibody by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) {ANTICORASE MB-96 [TMB] from General Biological Corporation}. Data were analysed using software within SPSS packages.
Results: Twenty two (11.7%) of 188 HIV-infected patients had isolated anti-HBc. Co-infection of HIV-HBV in males (3.23%) differed significantly from that of females (8.51%). Highest coinfection (9.57%) was found among adult age group of 20 - 55, while no co-infection was found in teenager age group (13-19 years). Based on occupation, long distance drivers had highest coinfection of 8 (4.26%) while student had lowest prevalence of 2 (1.06%). Isolated anti-HBc among HIV individuals was found in 22 (11.7%) which was significantly high.
Conclusion: Since presence of Anti-HBc has been proved to be an indicator of occult hepatitis B which can cause liver cirrhosis and later lead to hepatocellular carcinoma therefore all patients attending HIV-clinic should also be tested for anti-HBc before commencement of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil for Antifungal Activity against Cladosporium carrionii

Camilla Pinheiro de Menezes, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, Lilian Sousa Pinheiro, Vinícius Nogueira Trajano, Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira, Valmir Gomes de Souza, Fábio Santos de Souza, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/17841

Cladosporium carrionii is considered the most important pathogenic species of genus because of the numerous cases of disease which causes in the world. Due to its antifungal resistance, these fungal infections are difficult to treat. Given the broad biological activity displayed by natural products, essential oils obtained from plants are often investigated to determine their antimicrobial activity.
Aims: Therefore, we identified components of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil, investigating in vitro antifungal activity against strains of C. carrionii.
Methodology: Identification of the chemical composition of the oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The antifungal activity of M. officinalis L. essential oil was investigated against 08 strains of C. carrionii determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), effects on mycelial growth, and conidial germination.
Results: The GC-MS results revealed 4 major components; geranial (52%), citral (38.90%), trans-β-caryophyllene (1.22%), and germacrene D (0.84%). M. officinalis L. essential oil inhibited the growth of all (100%) of the strains of C. carrionii tested. The MIC and MFC were established at 256 µg/ml. Inhibition of radial mycelial growth began at 128 µg/ml (MIC/2), and at both 2 x MIC and 4 x MIC the inhibition was complete. We also observed significant conidial germination inhibition at all concentrations when compared to the control (P<0.05). The inhibition increased with concentration so that at 2 x MIC complete (100%) conidia germination inhibition was observed.
Conclusion: Finally, our study results point to M. officinalis L. essential oil as a potential antifungal agent against C. carrionii.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Predictive Diagnostic and Prognostic Cut-off Values for Interleukin 8 in Patients with Meningitis in Egypt

M. Mosaad, M. Shedid, N. Soliman, M. Abdou, F. Amal, M. Gaber

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 57-65
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/17884

Objectives: This work was done to detect the best cut-off values for IL-8 to diagnose CNS infections (meningitis and meningio-encephalitis), to differentiate septic from aseptic types, and to predict mortality.
Methods: A case- control series design was chosen, where 42 patients who were diagnosed clinically as having meningitis and 42 control subjects were subjected for lumbar puncture and their cerebrospinal fluids were examined physically, chemically, cytologically, and bacteriologically; besides the level of interleukin 8 (IL-8) was determined and compared for both groups.
Results: The mean value of IL-8 was 75.8±89.1 in cases group compared to 26.2±18.0 in the control group which was highly statistically significant; its best significant cut off value for detection of CNS infection (meningitis or meningio-encephalitis) is 44ng/ml, while the best significant cut off value to diagnose septic meningitis was 50 with sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 82.35%. The mortality in our cases was 16.6%, and IL-8 best significant cut off value to detect this mortality was140 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 89.47% with +ve likelihood ratio 9.5.
Conclusions: IL-8 in CSF is a valid good significant marker to diagnose the infection, differentiate septic from aseptic types besides the known parameters, and more over it significantly predicts mortality in cases with meningitis and meningio-encephalitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Helminths from Fingernails of “Almajiris” in Birnin Kudu Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Abdullahi Yahaya, Yakubu B. Tyav, Aisha Idris

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 66-74
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/14186

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic helminth eggs in the fingernails of “Almajiris” in Birnin Kudu Local Government Area in Jigawa State, Nigeria and to determine the source of the infection as an indicator of the overall hygienic standard of “Almajiris” from such areas.
Study Design: Cross-sectional Survey.
Place and Duration of Study: The study area was Birnin Kudu Local Government Area in Jigawa State, Nigeria. However, the research was conducted in the Faculty of Science and Science Education, Department of Biology, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria between January 2014 and April 2014.
Methodology: The study was conducted among Qur’anic school pupils (Almajiris) attending three different Qur’anic schools in Birnin Kudu, Jigawa state. Simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting the 383 “Almajiris” (age ranges from 7 years to 30 years) recruited for this study. Swab samples from the fingernails were subjected to Salt Floatation Technique and the nail clippings were analyzed using concentration method and eggs of parasites were identified by characteristic egg morphology using standard procedures.
Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic helminthes among the overall population studied was 54.8% (210 of 383). The parasites isolated from the fingernails of the Almajiris are: 29.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 24.3% Hookworm, 19.0% Enterobius vermicularis, 8.1% Trichuris trichuria as well as mixed infections involving Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworm, 6.7%; Hookwom and T. trichuira, 5.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis, 4.2% and that between Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis and Trichuris trichuria, 2.3%. The difference between the intestinal helminths was not significant (P-value = 1.00). There were significant variation in relation to the infection among the three qur’anic schools (P-value=.001). Age group between 11-15 years had the highest infection of 60.2% but this was not significant (P-value = 1.00).
Conclusion: The study revealed high prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in the fingernails of “Almajiris” and if not controlled, it may cause colossal health challenges to the community. This underscores the importance of teaching hand washing and personal hygiene to “Almajiris” and their teachers, otherwise known as “Malams” as well as inculcating the habit of periodic deworming exercise.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Serum Liver Enzymes Markers, Lipid Profile and Kidney Function Parameters in Typhoid Patients

Omeh Y. Ndukaku, Ejiofor U. Emmanuel, Echeme A. Mercy, Nwoko O. Caroline

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 79-89
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/17322

Aim: Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi occurring frequently in underdeveloped regions of the world due to overcrowding and poor sanitation. However, the biochemical changes induced by typhoid fever have not been fully understood as a guide to finding a possible counter measure to combating the disease. The study was designed to determine the biochemical changes associated with typhoid disease.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, in the year 2014.
Methods: The study evaluated kidney electrolyte, lipid profile, liver marker enzymes in the serum of typhoid patients. 140 subjects were recruited for this study, 70 of which were normal individual control group and 70 individual with typhoid test group with age range of 18 to 28 years. Blood samples were analyzed to determine the lipid profile, kidney function and liver enzyme concentration spectrophotometrically.
Results: Urea and creatinine concentration in typhoid patients significantly increased (P = .05) when compared with the control group. Sodium ion, potassium ion, chloride ion and bicarbonate ion significantly decreased (P = .05) when compared to the control group. Result for liver function test revealed a significant increase in the concentration of AST, ALT and ALP in test group. HDL, LDL, Cholesterol, triacyglycerols and VLDL concentration significantly increased (P = .05) in typhoid patients when compared with normal individuals. Concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin significant decrease (P = .05) in test group when compared with the control group.
Conclusion: The study gave a clear indication of the changes induced by typhoid fever in humans. This study also revealed some physiological and biochemical conditions in typhoid patients that varies from normal individual, which explains the influence of typhoid morbidity.