Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Enteric Viruses among Young Children with Acute Diarrhea in Benin City, Nigeria

Paul Erhunmwunse Imade, Nosakhare Odeh Eghafona

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/18726

Background: Viral intestinal infections are the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea among children worldwide.
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of enteric viruses in young children 0-24 months in an urban secondary health center in Benin City, Nigeria.
Methodology: Stool specimens were collected from 168 children with clinical signs of diarrhea and 45 apparently healthy age-matched children without diarrhea. The specimens were analyzed by immunochromatographic technique following manufacturer’s instructions.
Results: The overall prevalence of viral agents was 39.3% for diarrheal patients. No viral agent was detected in the control. Rotavirus had a prevalence of 27.4%, adenovirus 9.5% and norovirus 2.4%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P<0.0001), but no statistical significance with respect to sex (P>0.05). The distribution of viral infection showed that single infection was 32.1% while mixed infection was 7.1%. The effect of feeding patterns on viral diarrhea was not statistically significant (P>0.05) while the effects of some variables on pediatric viral diarrhea showed statistical significance with respect to season (P=0.038), and no statistical significance as regards family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education and maternal occupation (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Viral diarrhea had a prevalence of 39.3%, and rotavirus was the most prevalent agent. Free rotavirus vaccination, other viral preventive measures such as proper education of the populace and viral diagnostic testing are advocated for children with diarrheal infection in this locality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Cholera Incidence by Using the Comparison of Four Models: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model, Holt Model, Brown Model and Simple Regression Model

Ebrahim Alwashali, Mohamed El Far, Mohamed Fares, Mohamed Fadli

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/18115

Aims: The forecast is a topical subject, which aid in decision making and its performance. The aim of this study is to predict the disease between 1995 and 2010.
Place and Duration of Study: The choice of the disease is of after its appearance in our survey in the region of Gharb. Time series were illustrated between1988-1994. Regional cholera annual data reported from ministry of health of Morocco.
Methods: The comparison of four models by the analysis of the series of cholera cases includes examining graphic series by using EVIEWS software, the consideration of the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions, define the model that suits, estimate it, diagnose, the residue analysis and compare the four models to choose the best for use in the forecasting process. Except the stationary series, we used IBMSPSS V22 for the other steps.
Results: Throughout this work, it is assumed that the underlying structure of the series follows an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process. It is presumed that observations of the disease follow an autoregressive moving average process of order AR (1) and therefore ARIMA (1, 1, 0). The comparison of models of time series is extended away by using the statistics fit of the model: MAPE, BIC and R-squared, in addition to the sig. of the parameters and the analysis of residues by Ljung-Box and Durbinwatson statistic. The validation of the series is estimated by the calculation of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and the signification of the parameter with P =0,05.
Conclusion: Brown model is the model of choice for the prediction of cholera cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implementation of the Revised Guideline on TB/HIV Collaborative Activities in Lagos, Nigeria

Olusoji James Daniel, Olusola Adedeji Adejumo, H. A. Abdulrrazzaq

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/18982

Background: The National Tuberculosis and Leprosy control programme commenced the implementation of the revised national tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) guideline in line with the recommendations from the World Health Organization in January 2013. This study evaluated the effect of the revised guideline on the implementation of TB/HIV collaborative activities geared towards reducing the burden of HIV in TB patients in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: Retrospective review of presumptive and TB cases managed in TB treatment centers of the Lagos State TB and Leprosy control programme between January 1st to December 31st 2012 (pre implementation period) and January 1st to December 31st 2013 (post implementation period). Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.
Results: Of the 19,533 presumptive TB cases registered during the pre implementation period 17,530 (89.7%) were offered HIV counseling and testing (HCT) out of which 15,247 (87%) accepted to be tested and 20.9% of those tested for HIV were positive. However in the post implementation period, of the 22,721 presumptive TB registered cases, 20397 (89.8%) were offered HCT and 19,264 (94.4%) accepted to be tested. Of those that were tested, 4430 (23%) were HIV positive. The proportion of TB/HIV co-infected patients enrolled on co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the pre and post implementation period were 76.6% vs 88.2% and 39.1% vs 49.8% respectively at p<.05.
Conclusion: There was increase in the uptake of HIV testing, ART and CPT post implementation of the guideline. Sustaining the gains of policy implementation is of utmost importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induced and Constitutive Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus spp. Strains Isolated from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Sávio Benvindo Ferreira, José Ricardo Tomé Lopes Martins, Paula Benvindo Ferreira, Zilka Nanes Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/18522

Aims: The hospital environment can act as a reservoir for microorganisms, which in turn can contaminate a range of hospital equipment and survive for long periods of time. One of these environments the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), for the initial post partum period serving as a home for newborns of low birth weight and needing invasive procedures for administration of nutritional and medicinal substances, which makes the NICU a critical area for housing individuals with immune system. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic appearance of resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. compared to erythromycin and clindamycin, originating from isolated areas of a NICU in the city of Campina Grande - PB.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the city of Campina Grande – PB, Brazil. Processing and Analysis of Samples: Clinical Analysis Laboratory of the State University of Paraíba, between August and October 2012.
Methodology: Samples were collected from surfaces present at the NICU. The samples were identified and strains of Staphylococcus spp. were subjected to sensitivity, and to verify erythromycin-induced resistance the D-test was used, following the CLSI standards-M100-S22 (2012).
Results: Bacterial strains from all surfaces analyzed were isolated, 59.02% of isolates belong to the genus Staphylococcus spp., representing 36 bacterial strains, of which 31 were subspecies Staphylococcus aureus and 5 were coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS). There was found more than 70% resistance to the group of penicillins and more than 30% to methicillin. Among the 36 strains of Staphylococcus spp. 19.45% were resistant to erythromycin. The rate found for constitutive resistance to macrolides (MLSBc) was 5.56% and was observed induced resistance to the macrolide type (MLSBi) in 2.78% the strains.
Conclusion: The resistotyping of isolated strains for inducible and constitutive resistance may be considered a test of substantial importance not only as an epidemiologic marker in view of analyzing possible dissemination of hospital strains, but with respect to adequate, and precise determination of the antibiotic treatment of neonates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-infection of Malaria and Typhoid Fever in Feverish Patients in the Kumba Health District, Southwest Cameroon: Public Health Implications

Lucy M. Ndip, Franklyn N. Egbe, Helen K. Kimbi, Henry A. Njom, Roland N. Ndip

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/18935

Aims: This study was aimed at generating updated baseline data on co-infection of malaria and typhoid fever and finding out the implications of these co-infections in disease severity.

Study Design: The study was cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Kumba, Southwest Cameroon from May to July, 2010.

Methodology: Venous blood was collected from 206 febrile patients of both sexes aged 4-80 years old at the Kumba District Hospital. Malaria parasite density and speciation were determined using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films respectively. Typhoid fever was diagnosed by isolation and characterisation of the aetiologic agent from stool samples in 178/206 patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates was determined by the disc diffusion method. Anaemia status, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspatate aminotransferase (AST) values were determined.

Results: Overall malaria prevalence was 90.3% (186/206) while geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 866 (range: 40 – 64880) parasites/µL of blood. Plasmodium falciparum was the most prevalent Plasmodium species. Overall prevalence of typhoid fever was 7.9% (14/178) while malaria/typhoid fever co-infection rate was 6.74% (12). Of the 14 typhoidal Salmonella isolates recovered, 6 were identified as Salmonella typhi and 8 as S. paratyphi. The Salmonella isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. Patients co-infected with malaria/typhoid fever had a significantly higher (P = .007) GMPD (1203, range: 100-64880 parasites/µL) when compared to patients with mono-infections of malaria (774, range: 40-18660 parasites/µL). Abnormal ALT and anorexia prevalence values were significantly higher (P=.01 and P =.045 respectively) in patients with only typhoid fever than their counterparts. The values of anaemia and AST were comparable in all groups of patients.

Conclusion: This study confirms that co-infections of malaria and typhoid fever are common and may exacerbate malaria intensity.