Open Access Case Study

Extranodal Rosai – Dorfman Disease of Oropharynx: A Rare Disease with Unusual Site of Presentation

J. Vijaya Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Anil Khurana, Ashok K. Chauhan, Renuka Verma, Rajeev Sen

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/19923

Rosai – Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic disease which is most frequently seen in children and young adults. Extra nodal site of oropharynx is rare. A rare case of extranodal Rosai - Dorfman of oropharynx is described here involving a 54 year old female who presented with difficulty in swallowing. Patient underwent incisional biopsy from the growth vallecula and the diagnosis of Rosai – Dorfman disease was made. Patient was initiated on mercaptopurine and predinosolone as the general condition of the patient was not permeable to undergo any surgical procedure and radiation therapy. Unfortunately the patient had progressive dysphagia and expired in between the treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neonatal Tetanus are We Winning the War?

Lucy E. Yaguo Ide, Tochi A. Uchenwa-Onyenegecha, Alice R. Nte

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/19046

Aims: To determine if we are winning the war against deaths from Neonatal tetanus.

Study Design: Retrospective descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) between1995 to 2014.

Methodology: Hospital records on Neonatal tetanus cases treated at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching to Hospital from 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2014 were reviewed. The records were retrieved and reviewed for age, sex, presenting complaint, mother’s immunization status, mother’s educational status, examination findings, duration of hospitalization and outcome of illness.

Results: Three hundred and thirteen neonates comprising 182(58%) males and 129(41%) females were treated, 2(0.006%) did not have any record of their sex. Most of the mothers were unimmunized and delivered outside health facilities. One hundred and sixty two (51.7%) of the newborns with neonatal tetanus in this study died.

Conclusion: There appears to be an upward trend in mortality of Neonatal tetanus cases as the previous review of neonatal tetanus in UPTH between 1995 to 2009 gave a mortality of 50% while the data for cases managed from 2009 to 2014 gave a higher mortality rate of 68.75% and as such we are not winning the war, the battle rages on.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis among Secondary School Children in Oloibiri Community

B. C. Ephraim-Emmanuel, A. A. Asara, Ogbomade Ronami, E. Francis

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20773

Background: Dental fluorosis with its attendant complication of aesthetic distortion of the teeth has now become another focus of public health intervention worldwide. We studied the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children at Oloibiri, Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of school children attending the Government Secondary School, Oloibiri within the age group of 11-19 years (JSS 1 – SS 3) was performed in January 2015. Each subject was seated on a chair in bright daylight and the teeth were not dried prior to the examination for fluorosis. The presence of dental fluorosis and its severity were recorded and the Dean's index was used to determine the grade of dental fluorosis. The prevalence and community fluorosis index were calculated.

Results: The mouth prevalence of dental fluorosis among our study sample was 18% and the Community Fluorosis Index was 0.42. The predominant type of dental fluorosis detected was the very mild variant of the condition (n=12). All subjects examined in this study presented with a low dental caries status.

Conclusion: Dental fluorosis and dental caries are not public health problems in Oloibiri Community. Health awareness and education about the use of fluoride are recommended in order to effectively drive home the public health desire of achieving optimal dental health for all round the globe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of E. coli Serotype 0157:H7 in ABUTH, Zaria, Nigeria

J. C. Igwe, J. A. Onaolapo, J. O. Ehimidu, R. O. Bolaji, A. B. Tytler, B. O. Ojiego, M. Kachallah, N. C. Okafo, A. Musa, M. T. Sidi, M. S. Salihu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/13112

The emergence and re-emergence of new strains of microorganisms with high virulent traits and resistant to even new generation antibiotics are significant limiting factor to patients’ recovery in clinical settings. This has indeed created a lot of economic burdens and loss of productive activities at work places especially in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of E. coli serotype O157:H7 in Zaria metropolis and the antibiotics resistance pattern of the isolates. Out of the 150 samples submitted for bacteriological diagnosis at the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Shika, Zaria, Nigeria, for the period of 6months (March - August, 2011), 60% of the isolates obtained were identified as E. coli. The incidence of E. coli serotype O157:H7 was 36.7% while the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates to 14 antibiotic commonly prescribed at ABUTH showed that the isolates were 70% resistant to Ceftazidine, 60% to Tetracycline, Ampicillin-Sulbactam, Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid, 40% to Amoxicillin, Cefuroxime, Nalidixic acid and Cefalexin, 30% to Nitrofurantoin, 20% to Ofloxacin, Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin, 10% to Ceftriaxone and all the isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin. We conclude that there is an incidence of E. coli serotype O157:H7 with varying resistant pattern in Zaria metropolis which has influenced the results obtained from clinical samples in ABUTH. This calls for significant antibiotic surveillance and good hygiene practices to prevent food/water born outbreak of diarrhea associated with E. coli serotype O157:H7, as the identified serotype has been implicated in several deaths around the globe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anaemia in Pregnancy: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Azare, North-East Nigeria

L. M. Dattijo, P. H. Daru, N. I. Umar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20791

Aims: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common health problem in poor-resource countries like Nigeria and is associated with both maternal and perinatal complications. It is multifactorial in origin; the relative contribution of these factors may differ from one region to the other. Anaemia is a preventable condition through interventions that are potentially feasible and cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of anaemia in pregnancy and its associated factors In Azare, north-eastern Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Azare Bauchi State, between January 2010 and June 2010.

Methodology: Four hundred women who presented to the antenatal clinic for their booking visit were studied. Anaemia was defined as a haematocrit of 33%. Demographic and obstetric characteristics as well as blood, urine and stool samples were taken from the enrolled participants. Estimation of haematocrit, malaria parasite, urine microscopy and stool microscopy were done. The data was analysed with Epi info 3.3.4. (CDC Atlanta).

Results: Prevalence of anaemia was 71.3% and severe anaemia was 1.4%. The majority (79%) of the women booked in the second trimester. Multiple logistic regression model revealed malaria parasitaemia (AOR 5.45CI 2.59-11.45), low socioeconomic status (AOR 4.90 CI 2.09-11.49) and bacteriuria (AOR 4.74CI 1.99-11.32) as significant associated factors of anaemia in pregnancy.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in this community is high and it is an established problem at booking visit. Girl-child education, economic empowerment of women, antenatal care, treatment of infestations and provision of safe water supply should be promoted.