Open Access Case Study

Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess with Multiple Septic Metastatic Complications – Case Report and Review of Literature

Kashif Khan, Elhadi Elouzi, Hiba Rashid

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21476

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common bacterial pathogen that is known to cause diverse community acquired and nosocomial infections [1,2]. These infections commonly occur in hospitalized individuals with impaired host defenses [3]. However the proportion of community acquired vs nosocomial infection has markedly increased in recent years [4]. A community acquired syndrome of cryptogenic invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess Syndrome (CIKPLA) has been known to typically affect individuals of Southeast Asian origin, and is complicated by devastating septic spread to other organs [5]. We report a case of community acquired invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae infection with multi organ involvement in an individual of non-Asian origin. The aim of this case report is to alert clinicians about increasing prevalence of CIKPLA syndrome, its different clinical presentations and occurrence in different populations suggesting a need for increased vigilance for early diagnosis and prompt management to prevent disastrous sequelae.

Open Access Case Study

Primary Ovarian Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Encounter Causing Diagnostic Dilemma

Pritha Ghose, Manisha Mahata, Jayati Datta, Sanghamitra Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti Das

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20605

Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by inoculation of larval form of Echinococcus granulosus in human organs. Human is the intermediate host whereas dog is the definitive host. The most common site of involvement is liver (60-70%) followed by lung (25%). Female reproductive system is the least common site of occurrence. Most of them are secondary to infection in liver or peritoneal rupture. Primary hydatid disease in ovary is very rare constituting less than 0.5% of all hydatid cases. We present a case of primary ovarian hydatid cyst in 48 years old female who was provisionally diagnosed as ovarian tumour; however, hydatid cyst of ovary was diagnosed incidentally during histopathological examination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Effect of 7-hydroxycitronellal against Candida albicans Strains

Heloísa Mara Batista Fernandes de Oliveira, Abrahão Alves de Oliveira Filho, José Pinto de Siqueira Júnior, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/19329

Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are associated with antifungal, analgesic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and gastroprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of the monoterpene 7-hydroxycitronellal against five Candida albicans strains using microdilution method. All the strains were obtained from the Laboratory of Mycology collection. Nistatin (100 UI/mL) was used as the standard drug. The monoterpene showed strong antifungal activity with MIC50 and MFC50 values of 256 and 512 µg/mL respectively. The results showed fungicidal potential of 7-hydroxycitronellal against C. albicans strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Knowledge and Practice of Forced-Feeding among Mothers and Caregivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria

Ikenna K. Ndu, Uchenna Ekwochi, Chidiebere D. I. Osuorah, Josephat Chinawa, Issac Asinobi, Jude C. Eze, Ogechukwu F. Amadi, Arinze C. Egwuonwu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/19826

Background: According to the Convention of the Right of a Child, every infants and child has the right to good nutrition. In delivery of good nutrition to the child, it is however important to encourage a child to eat in a responsive-feeding (RF) rather than forced-feeding (FF) manner. Forced-feeding is a common practice in developing countries and despite the dangers associated with it, many mothers are still driven by various reasons in justifying its practice.

Objectives: The study aimed to determine the knowledge and practice of forced-feeding among mothers and caregivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria. It also assessed the association between socio-demographic factors and the practice of forced-feeding.

Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional study used purposive sampling method to enroll one hundred and thirty-seven mothers and caregiver in Enugu state. Structured questionnaires were used in data collection.  Chi-square and fisher’s exact test were used in data analysis.

Results: Majority of the respondents were aware of practice of forced-feeding (80.3%) and its adverse-effects (46.0%). Only nine (6.6%) respondents got this information from a health worker. Force-feeding children was commonest in the 1 to 5 years age bracket. Significantly more respondents who were force-fed as children (83.0%) engaged in the practice of forced-feeding compared to those not force-fed (61.5%) as children. There was no association between socio-demographic factors and forced-feeding practice. Weight related reasons (60.4%) and administration of medication (12.0%) were the commonest reasons for force-feeding a child while forcing food into the mouth (29.1%), distraction (21.8%) and nose-pinching (19.1%) were the commonest methods employed in the practice of forced-feeding. Coughing and difficulty in breathing were the commonest perceived (49.5% and 18.8%) and experienced (33.3% and 36.1%) adverse-effects of forced-feeding in children of respondents.

Conclusion: The prevalence of forced-feeding among mothers and caregivers was high. This practice was particularly more among mothers in the higher socio-demographic strata. Relevant government agencies should be encouraged to formulate and enforce policies that discourage force-feeding. In addition, there is need for intensification of campaigns against the practice among mothers and caregivers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Uptake of Modern Family Planning Methods among Women of Reproductive Age in A Rural Community in Lagos State

E. O. Oluwole, Y. A. Kuyinu, O. O. Goodman, B. A. Odugbemi, M. R. Akinyinka

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20373

Aims: Pregnancies which are too many, too early and too frequent result in maternal/child morbidity and mortality. Delivery of effective family planning services has a direct impact on maternal/child wellbeing. Though awareness of modern contraceptive methods was high, the uptake rate remained low in Agbowa Ikosi, like in many rural communities of the country. This study was therefore conducted to determine the knowledge, prevalence and factors influencing the uptake of modern family planning among women of reproductive age in Agbowa community in Lagos state.

Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among women of reproductive age group in Agbowa community, Epe Local Government area of Lagos State, Nigeria, between February and July 2013.

Methodology: A household survey of 220 women aged between 15-49 years was undertaken at Agbowa community in Lagos, Nigeria, to determine their knowledge, practice and factors influencing the use of modern family planning methods. Data was collected using a pretested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire.

Results: The ages of study participants ranged from 15-49 years with a mean age of 28.42±7.5 years. The majority 192 (87.3%) were married, and 183 (83.2%) were aware of family planning. The commonest source of information about contraceptives was from health workers 68 (30.9%). Despite the high level of awareness of modern family planning methods, the prevalence of contraception among the respondents was low (38.6%). The most popular contraceptive method known by respondents was the male condom 118 (64.5%). Overall, 5 (2.7%) of the respondents had good knowledge, 102 (55.8%) had fair and 76 (41.5%) had poor knowledge of family planning. The main reasons given for non-use were fear of side effects (56.3%), lack of spousal consent (48.9%) and desire for more children (48.9%). The significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptives uptake were marital status, religion and nature of work (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Contraceptives usage remains poor despite high level of awareness. Effective educational and counseling interventions are required to improve women’s knowledge and subsequent uptake of contraceptive usage.