Open Access Case Study

Cysticercosis – Is It a Pathological or Radiological Diagnosis?

Bansal Sandeep, Virk Ramandeep, Rathi Alok, Ashok K. Gupta

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20362

Cysticercosis is one of the major neglected tropical diseases with increasing incidence recently. Adequate diagnosis is required for treatment of this eradicable disease. We report two cases of cheek swellings diagnosed as cysticercosis with differences in investigation modality used. While fine needle aspiration biopsy may help in definite diagnosis, site of lesion may not be appropriate. Ultrasonography on contrary can provide site accurately and help clinician in definite diagnosis. Thus clinician must select the modality appropriately according to feasibility and site of lesion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Structured Behavior Intervention Program on Childhood Obesity

Vijay Viswanathan, Balkhiwala Ahmed Khan Soukat Ali, Vigneswari Aravindalochanan, Selvan Kuppusamy, Rajeswari Rajan, Saigopal Sathyamurthy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21518

Background: Obesity is also attributed to environmental factors. Feasible and cost effective strategies to prevent childhood obesity are least explored in India. The purpose of the intervention is to evaluate the effectiveness of Comprehensive School Health Manual (CSHM) among children through a Training of Trainers programme for Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) school teachers.

Methods: The study was designed as a school-based intervention study adopting a cluster randomized design to recruit students of 3rd, 7th and 11th classes from 7 schools. The intervention and control arm had three and four schools respectively. Pre and post interventional anthropometric and behavioral measure were collected using standard methods.

Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 12.6%. There was no difference in the incidence of obesity (3.7% vs. 3.8%) at the end of study period. Among the participants who had a favorable shift in nutritional grade, 65.4% were in intervention arm. There was a significant reduction in BMI z score (-0.16) and body fat percentage (-2.02) in the experiment group. Both the group reduced their calorie intake but it was significantly lower in intervention arm -381.9 (95% CI -428.2 to -335.4)

Conclusion: A structured behavior intervention delivered through a Training of Trainers (ToT) empowered children to adopt healthy behaviors towards weight management. It is crucial to sustain these behaviors for positive impact.Behavioral intervention

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Thiazide Diuretic in Combination with Amiloride versus Hydrochlorothiazide Alone, on Plasma Glucose and Electrolytes in Hypertensive Nigerians: A Community Based Study

Oluyemi Akinloye, Fisayo Ogah, Moshood Adeoye, Okechukwu Samuel Ogah, Ayo Arije

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/20176

Background: Diuretics are known to be the most effective antihypertensive medicines in Black Africans and people of African origin. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and Amiloride-HCT(Amiloride combined with-Hydrochlorothiazide (Amiloride-HCT) used either as a single medicine or in combination with other antihypertensive medicines, are the two diuretics commonly used in the management of high blood pressure in Nigeria.

Aim: The present study aimed at comparing the metabolic effects of the Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and Amiloride-HCT in Nigerian hypertensive population.

Methods: Participants who gave their consent were recruited through a community based hypertension screening programme. One hundred newly diagnosed hypertensive patients aged 30 -70 years were recruited and randomly assigned to use either Amiloride-HCT or HCT. A cohort of two groups of patients consisting of 50 patients per group was studied. Each group of patient was followed up for a period of 6 weeks after commencing diuretic antihypertensive medicines. Fasting plasma glucose, serum electrolytes and lipids were assessed at baseline and at two (2) weeks interval after commencing antihypertensive therapy.

Results: HCT and Amiloride-HCT significantly reduced blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertension after six (6) weeks of treatment and this reduction was similar in the two groups. Although, moduretic appears to have more pronounced effect on K+, Ca2+ and HDL-C, this metabolic effect was not significantly different from the observed pattern in HCT group.

Conclusions: Amiloride-HCT and HCT commonly used in the management of hypertension in Nigeria remain effective and achieve similar reduction in blood pressure. They both also cause similar derangement in metabolic profile in the newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects at least in the short-term.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Citral by Disruption of Ergosterol Biosynthesis in Fluconazole Resistant Candida tropicalis

Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Aratã Oliveira Cortez Costa, Maria Clerya Alvino Leite, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, Viviane Araújo da Silva, Camilla Pinheiro de Menezes, Fillipe Oliveira Pereira, Edeltrudes Oliveira Lima

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21423

A limited number of antifungals and the emergence of resistant strains have hindered the treatment of candidiasis, making the search for new antifungals urgent. Citral is a monoterpene with known pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial action.

Aims: Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism of citral’s action against Candida tropicalis isolated from human blood, and the effect of its association with antifungals.

Methodology: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), the effect of citral on the cell wall (sorbitol assay), and membrane ergosterol binding were evaluated using broth microdilution technique. We also evaluated interference in ergosterol biosynthesis, and the citral-antifungal association effect (checkerboard method).

Results: The MIC90 and MFC90 of citral were respectively 512 and 1024 μg / mL. The MIC of citral did not increase when sorbitol or ergosterol was added to the medium, suggesting that citral does not act on the cell wall or by membrane ergosterol binding. However, citral inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis, and the citral-fluconazole combination showed synergistic effects for the ATCC strain. Conclusion: This study contributes to understanding the antifungal mechanism of citral’s action, and to the development of new therapies for candidiasis treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Cocos nucifera on Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats

Damilola Alex Omoboyowa, Nwogo Ajuka Obasi, Glory Otuchristian, Garba Jeremiah Danladi, Martin Umoh Okon

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21787

Background: Cocos nucifera is a plant used widely in the African system of medicine for its diverse medicinal and nutritional properties. Its extracts have a vast pharmacological activity and are used as raw materials for medicine and other commodities. Each part of this plant has its own therapeutic importance and uses which include: anticancer, reproductive, anti-inflammatory, anti-malaria, antioxidant and others. The present study investigated the effect of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera stem back on liver marker enzymes and liver histology of paracetamol exposed hepatotoxic rats using standad protocols.

Methodology: A total of twenty (20) male wistar rats distributed normally into five groups (n=4) were used for the study. Group I rats served as normal control and were not exposed to paracetamol, while groups II, III, IV and V rats were exposed to 750 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol served as intoxicated test groups. Groups II, III, IV and V were treated with 0.5 ml distilled water, 25 mg/kg body weight of silymarin,  200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of C. nucifera stem bark extract respectively for seven days. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were sacrificed using cervical dislocation method; blood was obtained for assay for the following hepatic marker enzymes Alanine amino transaminase (ALT), Aspartate amino transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin respectively. Liver tissue was removed, fixed in 10% formol saline and processed for histopathological studies using Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H and E) staining technique.

Results: The results indicated the presence of the phytochemical content of the extract in the order: tannins > soluble carbohydrates > flavonoids > alkaloids > saponnins > steroids. Result of the acute toxicity test showed that the extract is safe at a dosage of up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. The results showed that induction of paracetamol caused significant (P<0.05) increase in the marker enzymes and a multiple, mild to moderate periportal infiltration of mononuclear leucocytes in hepatocytes. It was observed that treatment with the extract caused dose-dependent significant (P<0.05) decrease in plasma aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin concentrations and increased protection in the damaged hepatocytes.

Conclusion: The hepato-protective activities of this extract might be attributed to the bioactive compounds present and as such implicates the extract as potent tool for ethnomedical practice.