Open Access Original Research Article

Filarial Elimination in India Missing Its Deadline– Evidence from a Cross Sectional Study of Four Districts of Uttar Pradesh

S. K. Singh, Monica Agarwal, Uday Mohan, Pavan Pandey

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21628

Objective: India in its national health policy-2002 proposed to eliminate filaria from India by 2015. For this India started Maas Drug Administration in year 2004. Since then few states has already achieved zero micro filarial rate, but filaria is still endemic in many states and districts of India. By looking at recent trends of Mass Drug Administration coverage it seems that target of eliminating filaria will miss its proposed deadline.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Lucknow, SitapurRae-Bareli and Hardoi districts of Uttar Pradesh in the month of May 2014 to assess the coverage of Mass Drug Administration conducted earlier in 2014. A total of 480 houses in the four districts were covered and the eligible population living in these household were interviewed regarding various aspects of the Mass Drug Administration programme.

Results: A total of 2,455 individuals residing in 480 houses were covered. The overall drug coverage of Mass Drug Administration in selected four district for Lymphatic Filariasis was 64.8%. Out of 1,592 person to whom drug was given only 1,154 (72.5%) actually consumed drug hence the net effective coverage of the Mass Drug Administration against LF in all four district was just 47.0%.

Conclusion: The net effective coverage rate was much below the recommended rate of 85.0%. The relative compliance was also below the recommended coverage rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Contraception among Refugees in a Refugee Settlement in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, John Cham Akwa, Dohbit Sama, Thomas Egbe Obinchemti, Charlotte Nguefack Tchente, Jacqueline Bih Nsom, Fulbert Nkwelle Mangala, Robinson Mbu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21474

Introduction: Despite the benefits of family planning, contraceptive use has been found to be limited among refugees.

Aim: This study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among refugees in order to improve their family planning and reproductive health services in Yaoundé, Cameroon where few studies on this issue have been conducted.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) with refugees invited from the refugee self- settlement Camp, Yaoundé, from 1stSeptember, 2012 to 28th February, 2013. A convenient sample of two hundred and sixty four participants was used. Information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, practice and contraceptive needs of the refugees using a pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Data collected was cleansed and systematically corrected for errors. It was analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3. Frequencies were generated and Chi-square or T-test were used to explore associations between variables where appropriate with P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Two hundred and sixty four refugees participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 29.6 years (SD=10.2 years). The refugees had lived in the settlement for an average of 5.8 years (SD= 4.5 years). Two hundred and thirteen (80.7%) participants had heard of modern contraceptives, 209 (79.2%) had seen modern contraceptive methods and 213 (80.7%) believe that modern contraceptives could prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The use of condoms was the most preferred method of contraception by 161 (83.3%) of all the respondents. However, only 96 (36.4%) used condoms during their last intercourse with a male predominance (54.1% vs 23.3%) (P-value < 0.05). The main reasons given for non-condom use were: reduced pleasure and unavailability in male participants and lack of knowledge in the female group. These differences between males and females were statistically significant (All P-values <0.05).

Conclusion: Although the study showed high level of awareness about family planning methods, the use of method contraceptive methods was low. There is need to increase community awareness about family planning through health education, and strengthen family planning services for refugees. The availability of trained personnel in providing family planning services is critical to expanding both awareness of/and access to family planning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylloplane Parasites on Common Edible Plants of Eastern Nigeria: Easy Link to Intestinal Parasites Transmission

O. C. Ani, C. V. Nnamani, E. I. Nnamonu, C. J. Oduburu, P. E. Martins

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/22394

Aims: In recent years, particularly in developing countries, there has been an unprecedented number of reported cases of parasitic illnesses linked to the high demand for fast foods, majority of which may be contaminated, improperly cooked or washed. This study was carried out to determine the parasitic load on some selected plant leaves, identify the possible parasites which could be found on these leaves, and determine which particular plant leaves habour more parasites.

Study Design: The study was laboratory-based observational investigation.

Place and Duration of the Study: The research was done in the laboratory of Biological Sciences Department of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria between June 2014 and January 2015.

Methodology: The leaves of Thaumatococcus daniellii, Alchornea cordifolia and Musa sapientum were screened for parasites using standard microscopy methods.

Results: Out of the 30 samples of the plant leaves screened, 22(73.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites. The parasites encountered include some species of protozoa (Entamoeba coli), cestode (Hymenolepis nana), nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Strongyloides stercularis). T. daniellii leaves had the highest parasitic contamination of five species of parasites while M. sapientum andA. cordifolia showed the less parasitic contamination of three and two parasites respectively.

Conclusion: From the findings of this study, it is obvious that plant leaves consumed by people are quite often contaminated with intestinal parasites. This is an indication that humans are at risk of infection especially as some plant leaves are naturally present in diet of people of all classes. Hence, the findings underscore the public health implication of using improperly washed or undercooked leaves of  these plants with vegetable famers, sellers and consumers, being at high risk of infection with strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, amoebiasis and others. The need to soak plant leaves for 10 minutes in saturated salt solution or to steam adequately before using them to prepare or wrap food is recommended. There is also need for government and non-governmental organizations to provide portable water and toilet facilities in order to discourage indiscriminate defecation in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and In vivo Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Phyllanthus niruri (Family: Euphorbiaceae)

Anupika Sood, Rupinder Kaur, Jaspreet Kaur, Sukhbir Kaur

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21450

Aim: The current study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Phyllanthus niruri against Leishmania donovani.

Methodology: The present study was designed to assess in vitro antileishmanial activity by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Whereas, the parasite load in liver smears was calculated in Leishman Donovan units. In addition, various immunological and biochemical changes induced by it in uninfected and Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice were investigated.

Results: The ethanol extract of this plant showed in vitro inhibitory activity with IC50-59 µg/mL against the promastigotes of L. donovani strain MHOM/IN/80/Dd8. For in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected with the promastigotes of L. donovani. After 30 post infection days, they were treated orally with two doses of the ethanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. Animals were sacrificed on 1 and 15 post treatment days. The extract reduced the parasite load to a significant level and generated a protective immune response which was evident from the enhanced DTH responses, elevated levels of IgG2a and lower levels of IgG1. Moreover, the results of liver and kidney function tests indicated that the extract of P. niruri has no toxic effect on liver and kidneys.

Conclusion: Since the plant has been revealed to possess significant antileishmanial activity by modulating the immune response and exhibited no toxicity. Therefore, it should be further explored to isolate its active components and to check their efficacy on higher animal models for control of leishmaniasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Prevalence of Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody among Adults in Oyo State, Nigeria: The Need for Review of Diagnostic and Vaccination Guidelines

Olufunmilayo Gbonjubola Oyero, Ewean Chukwuma Omoruyi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/21523

Background: Ten years of neonatal immunization with hepatitis B vaccine has not had any significant effect on the prevalence of the disease in Nigeria.

Aim: To investigate hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers as potential risk factors for viral transmission.

Study Design: A pilot prevalence study.

Place and Duration of Study: Community centers in Ibadan and Ogbomosho, between July 2014 and September 2014.

Methodology: One hundred and ninety-two apparently healthy volunteers (61 men, 131 women: age range 11-88 years) were investigated for HBV serological/immunological markers using enzyme linked immunoassays with 99 - 99.7% and 98.4 - 100% for specificity and sensitivity respectively (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Also data were processed with the statistical package for the social sciences version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., USA).

Results: A prevalence of 22.9%, 14.6%, 19.3%, 90%, 53.6%, 6.8% and 22.9% was obtained for HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb-IgM, HBcAb-Total, isolated HBcAb, HBeAg, and HBeAb, respectively. Analysis of the lifetime exposure of 90% among participants showed that 44 and 103 have markers for present (HBsAg) and past (isolated HBcAb) infections respectively, while 26 recovered with evidence of surface antigen neutralizing antibodies (HBsAb) in their serum. Seropositivity for HBsAg was highest among males and the 21-30 years old, while the female gender and persons aged between 30 and 40 years accounted for the largest percentage of isolated HBcAb carriers.  Although history of exposure to risk factors like scarification, tattooing, injection from quacks, surgery, blood transfusion, sharing of sharp instrument/tools and injection drug use was common among participants, only 15.6% took hepatitis B immunization. On the overall, the risk of HBV infection was significantly associated with scarification and sharing of sharp instruments and tools.

Conclusion: The study highlights potential risk associated with the current diagnostic guideline for hepatitis B status and advocates the need for immunization among susceptible unvaccinated population.