Open Access Short Research Article

Laboratory Services at Primary Health Centers under the Lens: A Need for Overhaul

Ashwini Devane-Padalkar, Shailesh Deshpande, Deepali Yakkundi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23001

Objective: To analyze the status of laboratory services at Primary Health Centers (PHCs) comparing the tribal and non-tribal areas, especially in the context of a decade since implementation of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Maharashtra state, India covering 123 PHCs (61 tribal and 62 non-tribal), using the Short Message Services (SMS) of mobile phones as a data collection tool. The data were processed using ENVAYASMS software and analyzed using MS Excel software (2007). Chi-square test was applied.

Results: Based on the parameters of availability of lab technician, ability to perform basic tests and availability of operable equipment, only 9.7% (12) of the 123 laboratories studied, were found to be “functional”. The availability of laboratory technicians was significantly lower in the non-tribal PHCs (67.7%) as compared to the tribal PHCs (91.8%).

Conclusions: The study casts aspersions on the ability of the PHCs to provide rational medical care based on sound diagnosis. The status of dysfunctional laboratories at the PHCs points to administrative deficiencies of the government in ensuring the availability of basic laboratory services, as well as the need for strengthening external governance through community based monitoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Infestation in Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) Obtained in Selected Areas of Metro Manila

Glenn L. Sia Su, Napoleon Carillo, Dienel Pera, Simaco Sison, Babylyn Tanalgo, Maria Lilibeth L. Sia Su, Myra Mistika

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23820

Background: Cockroaches are insects recognized to be mechanical vectors of disease-causing agents but in the Philippines there is little information on what particular parasites inhabit these organisms.

Objectives: This study assessed the parasitic infestation in cockroaches obtained in streets and canals of selected areas of Metro Manila. It likewise assessed the diversity of the parasites seen on the external surfaces of the cockroaches collected.

Methodology: Cockroaches were baited along the streets and canals of randomly selected areas of Metro Manila. Parasitic organisms were isolated and identified from the external surfaces of the cockroaches collected.

Results: One hundred cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) were examined, and 36% of the cockroaches had multiple parasites seen on their external surface. The common parasite observed in the cockroach obtained was the rhabditiform larva (25%). Significant differences on the parasites seen on the cockroaches obtained from the selected areas were observed (F = 4.03; P = 0.02).

Conclusion: The cockroaches obtained in Manila had the highest diversity of parasites seen on the external surface, and those collected in Quezon City had the least parasite diversity although those in Quezon City had the highest parasite load seen in the cockroaches examined.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Comparative Effect of Experimental Trypanasomosis Infection and Pantizen Treatment on the Haematological Profile of Albino Rats

O. S. Chukwu, C. O. Ukwueze

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/22862

Objectives: Experimental infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense in albino rats was done to compare their haematologic effects and then treated with Pantizen®, a brand of diminazene aceturate to ascertain its therapeutic effect on the heamatological value of the infected rats.

Methods: Six groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F) of six albino rats each were used for the study. Group A was uninfected control. Groups B and C were single infections of T. brucei and T. congolense respectively. Group D rats were infected with T. brucei and T. congolense the same day. Group E rats infected with T. brucei first and T. congolense 7 days after. While Group F rats were infected with T. congolense first and T. brucei 7 days after. The infected rats were treated on day 14 post infection and monitored for 7 days post treatment. Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts, total and differential White Blood Cell counts (WBC), were monitored weekly.

Results: There was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the erythrocyte values (PCV, Hb and RBC counts) and leucocytes values, more in group D followed by groups B and E. This indicates aneamia and immunosupression respectively. However, there was no significant variation (P > 0.05) in the PCV, RBC counts and Hb conc, total leucocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts of the infected animals treated with Pantizen® especially in group E. 

Conclusion: It was thus concluded that the therapeutic effect of Pantizen® treatment may reverse the depletion effect of both single and mixed infections on haemo-immune system of the animal taking into consideration the parameter measured.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Malaria and Gastrointestinal Helminthiasis Co-infection on Anaemia and Severe Malaria among Children in Bugesera District, Rwanda

Umwanankundi Marcelline, Umulisa Noella, Munyaneza Tharcisse, Karema Corine, Maniga Josephat, Barugahare John Banson

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23241

Aims: Determine the impact of malaria and gastrointestinal helminthiasis co-infection on anaemia and severe malaria among children aged 1 – 15 years.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in fifteen health centres of Bugesera District – Rwanda, between the months of April and October 2014. 

Methodology: A total of 465 children were enrolled. Finger prick blood and stool were collected and examined according to the established standard methods.  Data were double entered into EPI info software (Center for Disease Control and prevention, USA) and analysed using STATA    Version 12.

Results: The overall prevalence for malaria, helminthiasis and anaemia was 30.8%, 47.5% and 30.1% respectively. The prevalence of malaria and helminthiasis was highest in the age group of 6 -10 years. The anaemia prevalence was highest in the age group of 1 – 5 years. The prevalence of malaria and helminthiasis co-infection was 61.5% while the associated anaemia prevalence was 38.5%. Severe malaria was dominant in co-infected children (Chi1= 31.5222, P <0.000).

Conclusions: Malaria and helminthiasis co-infection is a better predictor of anaemia than either malaria or helminthiasis. Malaria and helminthiasis co-infection was significantly associated with severe malaria. The impact of malaria and helminthiasis co-infection reported in this study needs further investigation.Malaria

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors in Transmission of Tuberculosis Infection in Mombasa, Kenya: An Epidemiological Descriptive Study

S. A. Yonge, M. F. Otieno, R. R. Sharma, R. C. A. Omedo

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23621

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with an estimated 2 million deaths every year. In 2013 the estimated global burden of disease was 9 million cases. Many patients get infected as a result of ignorance of the risk factors that contribute to disease transmission. 

Aim: This study was aimed to determine the risk factors in pulmonary tuberculosis among patients attending various clinics in Mombasa.

Study Design: Hospital and laboratory based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried between May 2012 and May 2013 in Coast Provincial General Referral hospital (CPGH), Tudor, Port-Reitz, Mlaleo, Likoni and Mikandani districts and Sub-districts hospitals.

Methodology: Tuberculosis was diagnosed following standard clinical bacteriological and radiological procedures. Sputa from 500 tuberculosis suspects underwent mycobacteriologic evaluation using Ziel Nelsen smear microscopy, Lowenstein and Jensen and BACTEC MGIT 960 culturing. Consenting participants were screened for HIV infection by enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were required to respond to a structured questionnaire on risk factors for transmission. Data collected from group were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05 and for each statistically significant, odds ratios and confidence interval were computed.

Results: A Total, 210/500 (42%) of the suspects had mycobacterial disease and 78/210 (37.1%) were HIV co-infected. There were significantly more females than males associated with pulmonary tuberculosis infection (χ2=4.26, df=3; p<0.001). Monthly income was significant in disease with 130 (61.9%) of patients earning less than 5000 per month (2.65 (OR=2.65; 95% CI: 1.40-6.23, p<0.041). HIV (OR=2.18; 95% CI: 1.03-4.65, p<0.034), smoking (OR=2.16; 95% CI: 0.13-1.39, p<0.041) and overcrowding (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.41-5.62, p<0.051) were also statistically significant risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis.

Conclusion: Among TB patients in Mombasa Kenya, there was high prevalence of the TB risk factors. Effort should be given in creating awareness of the risk factors associated with TB transmission in order to reduce the rate of infection.