Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of Leukocyturia among Schistosoma haematobium Infected School Children in Cameroon

Dongang Nana Rodrigue Roman, Tombi Jeannette, Nkengazong Lucia, Ojong Lucie, Mfopa Adamou, Ngadjeu Sandra, Ngue Monique, Moyou-Somo Roger

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/18687

Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many areas in Cameroon and for effective control measures, an efficient, quick and cheap diagnosis should be integrated. This will ensure the proper management of infection due to Schistosoma haematobium in low resource communities.

Aim: This study aim to evaluate the use of leukocyturia as an indicator for the indirect diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas in Cameroon.

Methodology: 266 school children were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Urine samples were collected, examined macroscopically for haematuria and subsequently screened for microhaematuria and leukocyturia using urine reagent strips. The microscopic examination of urine samples for schistosome eggs was carried out using filtration technique.

Results: The mean ± SD age of school children was 8.55±2.03 years (range, 5 to 15 years). The prevalence of S. haematobium and geometric mean intensity of infection were 6.4% (17/266) and 4.1±6.2 eggs/10 mL of urine respectively. Infection with S. haematobium showed significant association with age (P < 0.05). The prevalence of microhaematuria and leukocyturia among infected children were 64.7% (11/17) and 70.6% (12/17) respectively. Microhaematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia was high in girls compared to boys and among participants aged 9-11 years.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the prevalence of leukocyturia was higher among the infected children. Future studies are needed to elucidate the possible use of urine leukocytes as an indicator for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas of Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anemia and Its Correlation with Parasite Infections in Children from Riverside Communities in the Brazilian Amazon: A Public Health Problem?

Érica dos Santos Sarges, Fernanda Gomes de Souza, Rafael Martins Boaventura, Eduardo Dias de Almeida, Janaina Miranda Bezerra, Marly de Fátima Carvalho de Melo, Carolina Heitmann Mares Azevedo Ribeiro

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23289

Aims: To identify the prevalence and the determinants of anemia as well as its correlation to enteroparasitosis in a population of Riverside children living at two communities at the Northeast region of Pará, Brasil.

Study Design: Population based cross-sectional and epidemiological study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Pharmacy College, at Federal University of Pará, and Lights in the Amazon program, between May/2013 and June/2015.

Methods: The biological material for the blood screening was obtained through venal aspiration in a tube containing EDTA and anticoagulant. Later, these samples were taken to the Hematology Laboratory at the School of Pharmacy at the Federal University of Pará. To determinate the presence and type of enteroparasitosis, feces samples were collected, later being subjected to the qualitative method of Lutz or Hoffman Pons and Janer. The correlation between anemia and its determinants was analyzed using PRISMA 5.0.

Results: Out of 98 children, 16 (16.32%) were anemic, out of which 14 (87.5%) were infected by parasites, 3 of them by one type and 11 by two or more different parasites. The non-anemic and infected by at least one parasite ones were 47 (47.96%). Regarding the incidence of parasites, Trichuris trichiura (67%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26%), were the most prevalent. The multiple logistic regressions between anemia and infection by one or multiple parasites showed significance for multiple-parasite infections (P = .05). The association between anemia and infection by parasites, measured by the Odds Ratio test among the four groups was statistically significant (OR: 5.21; IC 95%:1.11-24.43; P = .05).

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the incidence of anemia on the target riverside children population is still a persistent public health issue as well as the increased prevalence of enteroparasites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria: Prevalence, Correlates and Co-infection with HIV

Chinenye Gloria Anaedobe, Victor Ugochukwu Nwadike, Adeola Fowotade

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23584

Aim: Vertical transmission of Hepatitis C virus, often enhanced in the presence of HIV co-infection, results in unidentified perinatally infected children who present in adulthood with long-term complications of chronic liver disease. This study was set out to determine the prevalence of chronic HCV infection, co-infection with HIV and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional study.

Method: A total of 180 pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, from March to August 2013, were screened for HCV using third generation Enzyme Linked Immuno-absorbent Assay (ELISA) and confirmatory assay using nucleic acid tests were done on positive samples. Anti-HIV-1 antibodies were identified using qualitative immunoassay determine test strips. Pretested validated questionnaire were used to obtain bio-data on sociodemographic characteristics and presence of possible risk factors for HCV infection. Data analyses was done using SPSS version 20.

Results: Overall seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody was 1.7% (3/180) and anti-HIV-1 antibody was 20.6% (37/180). All HCV positive samples had HCV RNA identified in them but no detectable viraemia. No co-infection between HCV/HIV was observed. Low level of education, marital status, and positive history of surgical procedures, blood transfusion and jaundice was significantly associated HCV infection.

Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus infection is less prevalent than HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan and its co-infection with HIV is uncommon. The sexual behavioural risk factors identified in this study were not predictors of HCV infection; however, these factors may predispose these pregnant women to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Including Drug-Resistant Cases in Private Sector of Mumbai, India

Nilesh C. Gawde, Ashok A. Mahashur

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23239

Objectives: To find out practices related to management of pulmonary TB in new patients, patients not responding to treatment and diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistance in Mumbai’s private sector.

Methods: A total of 42 chest physicians (CP), 51 post-graduates in general medicine (MD), 70 allopathic graduates (AP) and 33 ayurvedic/homeopathic physicians (ISM) participated in this cross sectional study. A pre-designed pilot tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Practices of physicians were compared with the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC).

Results: Most physicians across all groups reported use of sputum microscopy for diagnosis. ISTC recommended regimens were prescribed by 11 (29%) CP, 15 (31%) MD, 6 (9%) AP and 3 (9%) ISM practitioners for treatment of new pulmonary TB patients. 18 (43%) CP, 13 (26%) MD, 19 (27%) AP and 6 (18%) ISM practitioners prescribed retreatment regimen without investigating for drug-resistance among patients not responding to first regimen. Regimens prescribed by 6 (25%) CP and 3 (9%) MD for treatment of multidrug-resistant TB were as per ISTC recommendations. The specialists (CP and MD) were significantly more likely than family physicians (AP and ISM) to adhere to ISTC recommendations related to diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of new TB cases.

Conclusions: Management of TB among new patients was deviating from ISTC recommendations more so among AP and ISM than in CP and MD groups. There is a delay in suspecting drug-resistance in private sector. Majority of regimens offered for treating multidrug-resistant TB are not individualised and most are inadequate. There is a need to train physicians in Standards for TB Care in India (STCI).

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban–Rural Disparities on Clients Knowledge of Cause and Preventive Measures for Childhood Immunizable Diseases in Primary Health Centers of Enugu State, Nigeria

Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Akinola Ayoola Fatiregun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24221

Aims: The study was designed to determine urban–rural disparities on clients knowledge of cause and preventive measures for childhood immunizable diseases in primary health care facilities of Enugu State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Using a cross-sectional analytical study design, a three stage sampling technique was adopted to select 800 clients who presented with their children/wards to 18 of 440 primary health centers in the study area for immunization services. The study took place between October and December 2013. The outcome measure of study was clients’ good knowledge of cause of childhood immunizable diseases, and was determined by proportion of clients who knew the cause of four of the eight childhood immunizable diseases in the national immunization schedule.

Results: Majority of the clients were aware of the childhood immunizable diseases and also their preventive measures. Knowledge of cause of tetanus was high, (urban, 75.3%; rural 71.3%), but low for poliomyelitis, (urban 0.5%;, rural 3.3%), and yellow fever, (urban, 5.0%; rural 5.5%). None of the clients knew the cause of measles. Low and comparable proportion of clients in the two study groups had good knowledge of cause of childhood immunizable diseases, (urban, 23.8%; rural 27.5%). Predictor of good knowledge of cause of the diseases is maternal attainment of primary education, (AOR) =0.4, 95% CI: 0.2- 0.8).

Conclusion: Majority of the respondents were aware of the childhood immunizable diseases and also their methods of prevention. The clients perception of the cause of childhood immunizable diseases was poor in the study area. There is need for adequate public enlightenment on the cause of these diseases including health education of the mothers during immunization visits as good understanding of the causes may serve as a boost to the immunization programme and help to increase its coverage.