Open Access Case Study

An Original Study on Blaschkoid Pityriasis Rosea – One of the Rarest Atypical Variants of this Paraviral Exanthema

Antonio Chuh, Vijay Zawar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24416

Background: Blaschko’s lines are believed to be originated from the migration of mosaic populations of epidermal cells and tissues. Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an exanthem which might be associated with human herpesvirus-7 and -6 infections.

Objective: To evaluate the risk factors, clinical manifestations, co-morbid associations, and complications in patients with Blaschkoid PR, and to determine its relative incidence among all patients with PR.

Methods: Our setting was a skin clinic served by a consultant dermatologist. We searched for and retrieved records of all patients with Blaschkoid PR presented to us during an eight-year period.

Results: Out of 507 patients with PR seen by us, three (0.59%) patients had Blaschkoid PR. All three patients exhibited strictly unilateral distribution of one single group of lesions along Blaschko’s lines, as linear or slightly curved stripes. All three patients had prodromal symptoms, herald patches, secondary eruptions, peripheral collarette scaling for some lesions, and spontaneous clinical remission in two to six weeks.  We found no risk factor, co-morbidity, and no complications for patients with Blaschkoid PR.

Conclusions: Blaschkoid PR is indeed rare. Apart from the rash distribution, clinical manifestations of this variant are in line with classical PR.

Open Access Case Study

Family Structure and Bonesetter’s Gangrene in Children: A Case Series

Stephen Adesope Adesina, Isaac Olusayo Amole, Olufemi Timothy Awotunde, Samuel Uwale Eyesan, Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Adenike Adeniran, David Akintayo OlaOlorun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24242

Aims: The aim of this case series is to draw attention to the influence of family structure on the patronage of traditional bonesetters and the frequent occurrence of bonesetter’s gangrene in children being raised in the absence of their biological fathers.

Presentation of Case: We present four cases of limb gangrene complicating musculoskeletal injury treatment by traditional bonesetters of children being raised by mothers in families where their biological fathers were lacking owing to marital conflicts.

Discussion: Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing steady growth in out-of-wedlock motherhood and marital instability which has resulted in a large number of single mother families in the region. Bonesetter’s gangrene is common in many sub-Sahara African countries including Nigeria, because of the widespread patronage of traditional bonesetters (TBS) for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Children are often victims because being dependants, they are influenced by the health care-seeking decisions of their parents which is in turn affected by the number of parents that they live with, and whether their parents are married.

Conclusion: Interventions to protect children from bonesetter’s gangrene should include the provision of avenues for peaceful marital conflict resolution that preserves marital unions, and mothers and fathers should be health-educated so that they can make informed decisions on behalf of their children.


Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Anopheles Mosquitoes and Their Behavioural Patterns in Uyo, Nigeria

Inyang A. Atting, Mfonobong E. Akpan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23394

Aims: Malaria is a public health problem in Nigeria. Knowledge of some baseline data such as Human Biting Rates (HBR) is needed to assess the epidemiology of the disease and in estimating the vector-human contact. This study provides information on the behavioural patterns of anopheles mosquitoes in Uyo.                                                                                                  

Study Design: A six months study was carried out in Uyo, Nigeria where no information exists on the major malaria vectors associated with human malaria. Sample collection was carried out between May and October 2013 using Knockdown and Human Landing Catches (HLC) techniques.

Methodology: Adults mosquitoes were collected in two areas in Ewet Offot Community. Nine houses were randomly selected in each location using Simple Random Sampling Method. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex were further characterized and identified by a molecular method using Polymerase Chaiin Reaction (PCR).

Results: Two anophelines species were collected by the sampling methods consisting of 21(23.3%) Anopheles nili and 69(76.7%) Anopheles gambiae complex. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based test on the An. gambiae complex identified 66(96.0%) as An. gambiae sensu stricto. The study also revealed that the resting behaviour of An. gambiae complex species in this area is endophilic whereas the resting behaviour of An. nili is exophagic/exophilic. The peak biting activity of An. gambiae complex species occurred at 11 pm (indoor) and 7 pm (outdoor) in July whereas that of An. nili occurred at 10 pm (indoor) and 6 pm (outdoor) in June. The Human Biting Rates (HBR) recorded for An. gambiae was higher than An. nili and the total number An. gambiae collected was more than An. nili.

Conclusion: There is a need for a comprehensive knowledge on the behaviour and heterogeneities that exist within and among malaria vector species in this area if the goal of malaria elimination is to be achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Students in Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

Olajide Joseph Afolabi, Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke, Patience Tolulope Bakare

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23886

Aims: The study is undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the predisposing factors that make the students to be susceptible to intestinal parasitic infections in the study area.

Study Design: Complete randomized design was used to sample the population of students who attended the University Health Centre during the period of the research.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria from February to September, 2015.

Methodology: Fresh faecal samples were collected into sterilized bottles from 300 students (204 male and 96 female, age range 10-50 years and mean age 25 years) who attended the university health centre from February to September 2015. Useful epidemiological information such as weight, eating habit, source of drinking water and toilet types were obtained from the subjects through administration of structured questionnaire. The eggs, cysts and larvae of the intestinal parasites were concentrated using flotation method and viewed with X10 and X40 magnifications of the binocular microscope. The prevalence of infection was calculated as the ratio of infected individuals in the population examined while significance of various parameters tested was established using Chi-square at 5% significance level. 

Results: The results revealed prevalence of eight species of intestinal parasites among the study group. The parasites include: Entamoeba histolyitca and Giardia lamblia (Protozoa), Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm (Nematodes). Schistosoma mansoni was the only trematode encountered in the study. Among these parasites, A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent (3.7%) while G. lamblia, T. trichiura and S. stercoralis were the least prevalent (0.7%). All the intestinal parasites observed in this study were not significantly different between genders (P > .05, χ2 = 0.928, n=300). In contrast, the prevalence of intestinal parasites varied significantly among the age groups with age group 10-20 years being the most susceptible age group in the study area (P value = .05 χ2 = 0.03, n=300).

Conclusion: Feeding habit of the subject and toilet types are major factors that predisposed the subjects to gastrointestinal parasites in the study area. Therefore, personal hygiene and public enlightenment on proper cooking of meat and fish should be intensified in the study area to completely eradicate gastro intestinal infections in public schools.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Interaction between Malaria Parasites and Blood Groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Ifeyinwa N. Chijioke-Nwauche, Chijioke A. Nwauche, Mary C. Oguike

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23211

The link between blood group Rhesus antigens and different malaria parasites as well as the prevalence of other Plasmodium species were studied among adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Thick blood smears and filter paper blood spots were made from finger prick for microscopy and molecular genotyping of parasite strains. Two hundred and forty six participants aged 16-60 years attending the Braithwaite Memorial Hospital and blood donors presenting at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Blood Bank were enrolled into the study. Blood samples were analysed for ABO antigen grouping using commercially prepared potent antisera. Isolated DNA was extracted from dried filter papers and analysed for Plasmodium specie identification using nested PCR method. Results obtained reveal that blood group O was most prevalent while the least was blood group AB. Parasitaemia results by microscopy shows that blood group O Rh positive was the highest with 163 (66.2%) followed by blood group A Rh positive 43 (17.5%), B Rh positive 26 (10.6%), O Rh negative 7 (2.85%), AB Rh positive 5 (2.03%), B Rh negative 1 (0.41%) and A Rh negative 1(0.41%). Nested PCR revealed the presence of low prevalence of P. ovale and P. malariaespecies (4.3% each) and a very high prevalence of P. falciparum (82.1%) as well as mixed infections of the species. These results show the association of blood groups, rhesus positivity and Plasmodium parasites as well as the presence of ovale and malariae in the study area.