Open Access Original Research Article

High Disease Burden among Sanitation Workers of Shimla Municipality in Himachal Pradesh, India - A Leading Cause of Adult Mortality

Omesh Kumar Bharti, Vibhor Sood, Archana Phull, Vinod Kumar

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23747

The aim of this paper was to explore the work practices, injuries, illnesses, working conditions and other hazards faced by Shimla city municipal solid waste collectors and sanitary workers in the course of discharging their duties. The sample for the study comprised three hundred and eighty (380) solid waste collectors, drainage cleaners and septic tank cleaners selected through convenient sampling technique, through open interviews. Their supervisors also formed part of the sample.

From July 27, 2012 to Nov 27, 2014 (28 Months), a total of 16 sanitary workers, including two women, died of various ailments, which means death of one worker every two months. Majorities were in their mid forties and suffered cardiovascular ailments like heart attacks. A total of 33 sanitary workers died within 2 years of their retirement that is before reaching the age of 61 years most of them due to heart attack.

There is a strong need for periodic health surveillance of   sanitary workers to detect early signs of non-communicable diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes etc. among them and educate them regarding balanced diet and risk of excessive alcohol, non-veg food and smoking. There are facilities nearby to treat communicable diseases. However, now the trend of suffering of sanitary workers is shifting from communicable to non communicable diseases that are not taken care of at early stage and hence compound the problems for them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Domestic Violence against Women and Its Consequence on Child Mortality: Analysis from Five African Countries

Osuorah DI Chidiebere, Namasivayam Amrita, Frankie Fombong, Ndu K. Ikenna, Ekwochi Uchenna, Antai Diddy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23855

Domestic violence (DV) is a common social menace that can directly or indirectly affect the health of a child. Despite the attention received by violence against women internationally, only a few studies have probed into its effect on child’s mortality. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal exposure to domestic violence on under-5 mortality using nationally representative population based data from five African countries. Logistic regression in two different models was used to access the association between maternal exposure to DV and child mortality after adjusting for maternal socio-demographic variables considered in this survey. The prevalence of DV ranged from 35-71% in the five countries with the highest rate seen in Congo DR. Maternal exposure to DV was significantly associated with under-5 death. Decision making autonomy of mother and number of children being catered for, were important determinant of under-5 mortality in the face of DV. There is need to reduce or totally eradicate violence against women especially in Africa. This may help in further reduction of child mortality rates in the continent.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Scorpion Sting: Epidemiology, Clinical Symptoms, Treatment, Surveillance and Reporting Obstacles in the Salfit District (West Bank) (2014-2015)

Shadi Hilmi Abd Allah Adawi, Saed Hilmi Abd Allah Adawi, Deema Hilmi Abd Allah Adawi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23351

Aim: This study was conducted in order to highlight the epidemical status of scorpion stings for the period 2014- 2015 in the Salfit district, and the obstacles facing the Ministry of Health in surveillance and reporting of scorpion sting, also to provide information to decision-makers to take the appropriate decisions in order to strengthen and activate the epidemiological surveillance system which is the most important to control the disease especially in tropical disease.

Study Design and Methods: A retrospective and cross sectional study were done to discuss the epidemiological scorpion sting of Sixty stung patient reports (32 males and 28 females) during the years 2014-2015, also Specific questionnaire was prepared to estimate the Number of scorpion sting cases treated in private sectors, and to highlighted the main causes which prevent this sectors from reported the cases to Salfit Primary Health Care center (SPHCC). And all data was analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.

Results: The results were that scorpion sting affected both sexes with more prevalence among males (53.3%) and in all age groups, The scorpion sting site were more prevalent in limbs (63.4%), The most prevalent of the patients was  from Salfit City (25%). The results show that the most scorpion stings occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (50%, 40%) respectively and most of them occurred by a scorpion of an unknown color (61.7%), Most of clinical manifestations were localized symptoms with (Class I) (63.3%). The unity- histamine (Promethazine) and corticosteroid (Dexamethasone) was drug treatments that were the most used for all cases. The results also show that  the number of cases treated in public health sectors were 60 cases during the years 2014-2015, average (30 cases yearly), and the estimated  number of cases treated in private health sectors were 643 cases during the years 2014-2015 with average (321.5 cases yearly), and (75%, 80%) of the private clinical centers included in the study received cases of scorpion stings during the years 2014-2015 respectively; (85%,95%) of these cases were not reported to the SPHCC  during the years 2014-2015 respectively. The results show the private doctors and private clinical centers didn’t reported the cases to SPHCC because of they not considered an important event and due to the weakness of the relationship between the public and private sectors. The results show that the epidemiological profile of scorpion sting cases is not yet clarified in (SPHC) and in the Public Hospital. And absence of a connecting system is between SPHCC and the Public Hospital, which led to lost data and under reporting.

Limitations of Study: This study for the specific geographical area (Salfit district) to evaluate the epidemiology of 60 scorpion sting patients in the Salfit district recorded at SPHC and the Salfit public hospital for the period from 2014 to 2015. Absence of specific reports of scorpion stings lead to lack in information available. The data found to be lacking were the site of sting, the place of sting, scorpion body color or species, time from sting until assistance (TSA)(hours), and clinical manifestations.

Conclusion: More studies are needed to understanding the epidemiological status of scorpion sting and to have full information about the causes of unreported cases in public health sectors but   according to this study the results show that there were gaps in the information available about scorpion stings in SPHC and in the public hospital. The results show that lack of collaboration between the private health and public health sectors and more collaboration is needed between inter-sectoral and Public Health Services.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors that May Influence Adherence in a University Based Program for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Yaoundé – Cameroon

Bernadette Ngo Nonga, Serge C. Billong, Paul Tjek, Valere Mve, Calvin Tiyou, Ambassa Berthy, Sebastien Ombotto, Francois Alla

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23612

Background: The prevention of mother-to child transmission (PMTCT) is considered as a major strategies to fight the HIV infection in children. Very few study have analyzed the uptake, adherence and the retention of the pregnant women in the PMTCT in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to identify factors that may influence adherence in the PMTCT in Yaoundé.

Methods: Over a 6 months period, we carried out a cross sectional and descriptive study from January to June 2015. We conducted the interview of all consenting HIV infected and pregnant women followed at the university teaching hospital of Yaoundé using a self-administered, structured questionnaire.

Results: We recruited 61 patients, 52% were living with HIV for more than 5 years. Close to 39% still believed that AIDS was a shameful disease. No partner was involved in the program. Although all of them have heard about PMTCT, only 70% have really understood it, 26 patients (43%) have decided to breastfed their child for financial reasons (60%) or to follow the recommendations of the WHO (40%). Many of them complained about the high consultation fees. Many of them declared that there should be a psychologist to listen to them, and requested for further information about the program. They complained about stigmatization.

Conclusions: bad attitudes toward the HIV infection, poverty, stigmatization, low involvement of the partners, and misunderstanding of the PMTCT are factors which may have a negative impact on the adherence in the program of the UTH of Yaoundé.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Trypanosomal Effect of Neem Kernel Oil in Mice Infected with Trypanosoma brucei

Nwosu Chukwukere Okwudili, Ugwu Chidiebere Emmanuel, Maduka Hugh Chima Clifford, Mbaya Albert, Okpogba Aloysius Ngozi, Madugu Adams Kapthang

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23591

Aim: There is a huge economic cost of T. brucei parasites in both man and animals with limited drugs available for complete treatment of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of neem kernel oil on T. brucei using haematological parameters of PCV, Hb and RBC as indices of evaluation in mice as the animal model.

Methodology: The mice were randomly divided into five groups containing 5 mice each (A, B, C and D). Group A was neither infected nor treated and served as control while groups B-D were intra-peritoneally infected with 1x 105 Trypanosoma brucei organisms.

Results: The infected groups developed parasitaemia 3 to 4 days post infection (pi). The group that was untreated became ill and died 10 days pi. The treatment with neem kernel oil at the onset of infection (day 0) or onset of parasitaemia (day 4 pi) resulted in less severe clinical symptoms and reduced levels of parasitaemia. All the mice that were infected with the kernel oil (groups B,C) and those infected but untreated (group E) died within 10 days of the study. The mice in group D treated with diminazene aceturate survived the parasitaemia. The haematological indices of the diminazene aceturate treated group showed significant (P<0.05) recovery to almost their pre-infection levels.

Conclusion: The results suggest that although the neem oil did not have any significant effect on Trypanosoma brucei parasitaemia, it reduced the adverse haematological changes caused by the parasites. The results also suggest that the neem kernel oil alone may not be useful in the control of Trypanosoma brucei infection.