Open Access Short Communication

Prevalence of Vulvovaginitis in Sexually Active Women from Riverside Communities in Brazilian Amazonia

Samara de Oliveira Vilaça, Kelly Vasconcelos Fernandez, Karine Moreira Gomes, Lucas Ribeiro Brito, Marly de Fátima C. de Melo, Mioni Thieli F. M. de Brito

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/22816

Aims: Analyze the prevalence of vulvovaginitis in sexually active adult women, residents of riverside communities in Brazilian Amazonia, receiving health services through the “Luz na Amazônia” program in 2013 and 2014.

Study Design: Population based cross-sectional and evaluative study.

Place and Duration of Study: “Luz na Amazônia” Program and Laboratory of Clinical and Environmental Mycology from the Federal University of Para (UFPA), between January 2013 and December 2014.

Methodology: The analytical cross-sectional study was made with bacterioscopy and fresh examination of vaginal secretion and the results were statistically analyzed with software BioEstat 5.0.

Results: The prevalence of vulvovaginitis was 78,57%, and the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, genital infection by Candida spp and vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis was 66,07%, 28,57% and 8,92%, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the signs, symptoms and vulvovaginitis.

Conclusion: Due to the necessities of this population and the high prevalence of vulvovaginitis found, becomes evident the importance of projects which aim the prevention and promotion of health education for women from these communities to be encouraged to seek medical exams more often, in order to minimize the cases of vaginitis and vaginosis in these communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Head Teachers on School Health Policy and Community Interaction in Primary Schools in Ogun State, Nigeria

O. E. Amoran, O. T. Kuponiyi, O. T. Kuponiyi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24652

Introduction: The success of the School Health Programme depends on the extent to which community members are aware of, and are willing to support health promotion efforts. This study was therefore designed to assess the perception and practices about school health policy and community interaction among school head teachers in primary schools in Ogun state Nigeria.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted between February and May, 2014 in Ogun State, Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling technique. Participants in the study were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which was administered by a trained interviewer.  Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. 

Results: A total of 360 head teachers were recruited into the study with 95% response rate. One hundred and forty eight (82.2%) of the Public and 149 (82.8%) of the Private School Head Teachers were of the opinion that advocacy to community and the parents was necessary to have an effective School Health Programme. A functional Parents-Teachers Association was found in 162 (94.4%) of the Public Schools and in 160 (94.7%) of the Private Schools. It was observed that 99 (55%) Public and 79 (43.9%) Private School Head Teachers were aware of the existence of the National Policy on School Health in Nigeria (p=0.035). Only 9 (9.1%) of Public and 17 [21.5%] of Private Head teachers had ever seen a copy of it. (p=0.020). Nine (9) Teachers claimed to have a copy of the Policy but none (0%) could produce it on demand.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the level of provision of an adequate emotional climate in the school is low and that Head Teachers are not aware of the existence of the National School health Policy in Nigeria. This implies that most of the schools in Nigeria may practice the School Health Programme based on personal understanding of the Head Teacher.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Cancer Therapy Recipients with Concurrent Diarrhea

Aida A. Abdel-Magied, Walaa A. El-Ghanam, Hosam I. El-Nemr, Abeer A. El-Henawy

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24379

Aims: Patients receiving intensive cancer therapeutic regimens are subjected to increasing risk for developing infections including intestinal parasites. Changes in epidemiology of parasitic infections are important in those patients as some parasites may lead to prolonged and severe life threatening diarrhea. So, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in those patients.

Study Design:  This is an observational cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Hospitalized patients in the Oncology and Radiotherapy Department, Mansoura University Hospital (MUH), Dakahlia governorate, Egypt, from December 2012 to March 2014.

Methodology: A total of 145 patients with haematological malignancy presenting with diarrhea while currently in the course of cancer therapy were recruited. Fresh stool samples were examined by saline, iodine mounts and after concentration with formol-ether sedimentation method. Staining of smears was performed with Trichrome, modified Trichrome, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stains. Stool culture of fresh samples using both Harada Mori filter paper strip culture and modified agar plate was used for detection of Strongyloides or hookworm larvae.

Results: Intestinal parasites were detected in 124 of 145 (85.5%) subjects. Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite (36.6%), followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (30.3%), then Entamoeba histolytica(27.6%). Only Cryptosporidium parvum and Entamoeba histolytica were the parasites significantly present as mixed infections with other parasites (p= 0.006, 0.019 respectively). Persistent diarrhea was mostly associated with parasitic infections.

Conclusion: The study highlighted the importance of regular laboratory screening for intestinal parasites in patients receiving cancer therapy. Persistent diarrhea should raise high suspicion for parasitic infections in this particularly susceptible group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Transmitted Helminths; Prevalence, Perception and Determinants among Primary School Children in Rural Enugu State, Nigeria

Elias Chikee Aniwada, Nwachinemere Davison Uleanya, Lawson Nwokedi Igbokwe, Chika Onwasigwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24501

Aim: The study was to explore parents knowledge and practice of deworming as well as prevalence of soil transmitted diseases and potential benefit of deworming among primary school children.

Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Selected public primary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria, between January and June 2013.

Methodology: Pupils and their parents eligible for voluntary participation were selected and studied. Parents were interviewed using questionnaires. Pupils stool were analyzed at baseline and after 3 months following deworming. Level of significance was at p ≤ 0.05

Results: It was based on 859 pupils and 410 parents. The mean age of pupils was 9.50±2.10. Males > females. The mean age of parents was 30.47±5.47. Farming 166 (40.49) and trading 120 (29%) were their predominant occupation. At baseline 220 (25.6%) of the pupil were infected; Ascariasis 111 (12.95%), hookworm 42 (9.7%), mixed infection 9 (4.1%) and protozoa 20 (2.4%). Three months following deworming 24 (2.8%) were infested; Ascariasis 9 (1.0%), and hookworm 8 (0.9%), protozoa 8 (0.9%). There was no mixed infection detected. There was a significant difference in worm infestation at baseline and at 3 months following deworming (p <0.001). Majority of their parents have heard of worm infection 364 (88.8%), knew about deworming 261 (63.7%), knew abdominal discomfort 247 (67.9%) and eating without gaining 191 (52.5) as features of worm infection, stated that worm infection can be contracted by walking barefoot 89 (24.5%) and through eating sweet foods 158 (43.3%). About 27 (13.5%) stays over a year before deworming their children. There was no significant association between socio-demographic variables of pupils, their parents, mean knowledge and practice of deworming with worm infection in pupil.

Conclusion: Knowledge and practice on worm infection and deworming were fairly good among the respondents studied. Prevalence of worm infection in this study was low. Deworming marginally reduced worm infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of Under-five Mortality Clustering in Northern Nigeria: Findings from Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Zamfara State

Olatunji Alabi, David Baloye, Henry V. Doctor, Olugbenga A. Oyedokun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24709

Aims: The persistent high rate of under-five (age 0-59 months) mortality in Nigeria and northern Nigeria in particular, remains one of the most discussed topics in all population-development spheres. The importance of spatial assessment and mapping of health data cannot be over emphasized. The objective of the study was to identify high risk areas of under-five mortality clustering in selected communities of Zamfara State in northern Nigeria.

Study Design: Longitudinal study of demographic data collected at the household level.

Place and Duration of Study: Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Zamfara State, Nigeria, between January 2011 and December 2013.

Methodology: The study identified high risk areas of under-five mortality clustering in the study area through collection and processing of health and demographic data (mortality and fertility) and geographic coordinates of all compounds within a demographic surveillance system area in northern Nigeria. The surveillance area had a population of 142, 129 as of December 2013.

Results: Under-five mortality clustering was observed in all the six districts of the surveillance area. Two of the six districts with significant under-five mortality clustering were characterized by poor access to health care facilities, poor sanitation and living conditions which are typical of rural and disadvantaged northern Nigeria settings.

Conclusion: The findings call for effective health interventions to reduce the high burden of under-five mortality in the study communities and other communities in northern Nigeria with similar characteristics.