Open Access Original Research Article

Properties and Drug-likeness of Compounds That Inhibit Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)

Ronald Bartzatt

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25021

Aims: To present the molecular structures of compounds that has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of Ebola virus. To elucidate the molecular properties of these virus inhibiting compounds.

Study Design: The molecular properties of virus inhibiting compounds are elucidated and compiled. Pattern recognition methods and statistical analysis are applied to determine optimal properties of this group of compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry Department, Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, Omaha NE. between December 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: A total of 60 compounds were identified as inhibiting the virus Ebola. The molecular properties such as Log P, molecular weight, and 7 other descriptors were elucidated utilizing heuristic methods. Structures are compared by applying classification methods with statistical tests to determine trends, underlying relationships, and pattern recognition.

Results: For 60 compounds identified the averages determined: for Log P (3.51), polar surface area (89.45 Angstroms2), molecular weight (432.6), molecular volume (393.96 Angstroms3), and number of rotatable bonds (7). Molecular weight showed a strong positive correlation to number of oxygen and nitrogen atoms, number of rotatable bonds, and molecular volume. K-means clustering indicated seven clusters divided according to highest similarity of members in the cluster. Ranges found: formula weights (157.1 to 822.94), Log P (-2.24 to 8.93), polar surface area (6.48 to 267.04 A2), and number of atoms (11 to 58). Multiple regression analysis produced an algorithm to predict similar compounds.

Conclusion: The formula weights and Log P values of Ebola virus inhibitors show a broad range in numerical values. Consistency in properties was identified by statistical analysis with grouping for similarity by K-means pattern recognition.  Multiple regression analysis enables prediction of similar compounds as drug candidates. Only 29 compounds showed zero violations of rule of 5, an indication of favorable drug-likeness. These compounds are highly varied in structures and properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Mezam Division in the North West Region of Cameroon: A Community-based Case Control Study

Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Therence Nwana Dingana, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Julius Atashili, Boniface Tatchwanglie Nasah

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24927

Background: Since 2008, an average of 358,000 women die annually worldwide of pregnancy-related causes. About 99% of these deaths occur in developing countries, 43% of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa alone. In Cameroon, the rate has increased from 669 maternal deaths/100,000 live births in 2005 to 1000/100,000 live births in 2010. Socio-economic, cultural, and obstetric factors have been found to account for this jump.

Objectives: The aims of this study were 1) to identify the causes, both direct and indirect, of maternal mortality, 2) to investigate the factors associated with maternal deaths, and 3) to describe the age distribution of maternal mortality in Mezam Division in the North West Region of Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective, community-based case-control study from January 1, 2011 to November 30, 2014 on 89 maternal deaths (cases), and 178 women who survived delivery (controls). Cases were identified with the aid of key community leaders. A questionnaire for maternal death review or verbal autopsy was administered and controls effected among the sisters or neighbours of the cases. Microsoft Excel, Epi Info and InterVA-4 were used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 89 maternal deaths (cases) were identified during the study period, sixty-nine (77.53%) of which were from direct causes, mainly post-partum haemorrhage (30.43%), unsafe abortion (26.09%), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (14.49%); 21.35% from indirect causes, while 1.12% were incidental deaths, mainly severe malaria (5.6%), HIV/AIDS (5.6%). Among the risk factors of maternal death were inadequate antenatal care (RR=1.87: 95% CI; 1.33-2.63, P=0.0003), pre-existing co-morbidities(RR=1.45: 95% CI; 1.03-2.03, P =0.03), place of delivery(RR= 2.44: 95% CI; 1.79-3.32,P<0.0001), healthcare provider qualification(RR= 2.87: 95% CI 2.17-3.79; P<0.0001), and delays in arrival at health facilities(RR=1.420: 95% CI 1.01-2.0; P=0.04). The peak age of maternal death ranged from 20-24 years (24.72%).

Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage, unsafe abortion and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the leading causes of maternal death. Effectively combating the factors associated with maternal deaths will reduce if not eliminate maternal morbidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helicobacter pylori Infection as a Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease

Enas Sh. Khater, Badawy A. Abdul Aziz

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24342

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common infection in the world and coronary artery disease (CAD) is probably associated with it.

Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between H. pylori infection and other risk factors with suspected CAD patients and to investigate the influence of H. pylori infection on cardiovascular risk factors (lipid profile and. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP) levels).

Methods: Prospective cross sectional study was conducted to involve one hundred twenty patients with dyspeptic symptoms who involved 60 patients suffering from CAD and 60 controls who attended the gastrointestinal endoscopy clinic of the departments of internal medicine in AL-Quwayiyah General Hospital, Riadh, KSA. The study was carried out for six months from June to - November 2015. H. pylori were detected by rapid urease test, H pylori IgG ELISA test and histopathology. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- c) and triglycerides (TG) were measured by enzymatic methods using an automated chemistry analyzer. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- c) was calculated using the Friedewald equation. hs CRP levels were estimated.

Results: H. pylori was confirmed in 80 (66.7%) of total 120 patients and controls by histology (gold method for diagnosis) and 80 (66.7%) by rapid urease test while 75 (62.5%) was detected by serology. There was no significant difference in age, sex or coronary artery risk factors between the two groups, but the prevalence of infectivity for H. pylori was higher in patients compared to controls (47{78.3%} versus 33 {55%} P<0.05). The patients with H. pylori infection had significant high triglyceride, low HDL-c and hs CRP levels than those with negative H. pylori (180.2±64.1, 29.1±7.3 and 14.8±7.8 versus 137.6±48.4, 45.6±8.9 and 9.2±7.1).

Conclusion: H. pylori infection increases the risk of CAD, and should be considered as a risk factor for CAD, also there was significant association between H. pylori infection and increased triglyceride hsCRP levels and decreased HDL-c. Further, prospective large trial is needed to confirm our finding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Papilloma Virus Awareness and Uptake of HPV Vaccination among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Women in Nigeria

T. K. Nyengidiki, I. K. Durugbo, E. Oranu

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25241

Background: The contribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) to the etiology of cervical cancer is well established. Vaccination of at risk population is recommended best practice.

Aim: To determine the awareness of HPV and uptake of HPV vaccination among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women attending the antiretroviral clinic.

Study Design: A cross sectional questionnaire based survey

Place and Duration of Study: Antiretroviral clinics in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between 21st October -21st of December 2014.

Methods: Questionnaire based survey of 162 HIV positive patients was conducted. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness of HPV infection and previous uptake of HPV vaccination was collated and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Data was presented as frequency, percentages and P< 0.05 set as significant.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 35.17±7.14 years. Fourteen percent (23) were aware of HPV causing cervical cancer with 10.4%(17) aware of the existence of HPV vaccination. None of the patients were ever vaccinated against HPV. The main reason for lack of uptake was non-availability of the HPV vaccine.

Conclusion: Awareness of HPV as a precursor of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine uptake among this high risk population is abysmally poor. There is an urgent need for more sensitization of this group of patients to embrace preventive strategies to reduce the scourge of cervical cancer while concerted efforts should be made to increase availability of vaccine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Malaria in Mbonge and Kumba Sub-divisions in Cameroon

Valerie Makoge, Harro Maat, Ndzi Edward, Jerry Emery

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24808

Aims: To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding transmission, prevention and treatment of malaria in four rural settings and one urban neighborhood.

Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in Cameroon.

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in rural Mbonge division (Pete, Marumba-1, Marumba-2, and Bai Manya) and one neighbourhood in a urban town (Kumba), South West region of Cameroon between May and July 2015.

Methodology: 227 participants (118 males and 109 females) took part in this study. Information was collected with a pre-tested questionnaire with mostly closed-ended questions and a few open-ended questions. Questions focused on socio-demographic parameters, knowledge attitudes and practices with respect to malaria. Data was analysed using SPSS Statistics version 22 (SPSS Inc. IBM). p values <0.05 were considered significant.

Results: 118(52%) males and 109(48.0%) females were part of this study. Malaria was listed as the most common disease in all the settings without exception. In the rural settings, respondents related transmission of malaria to mosquito as follows: 53.3% in Pete, 70.7% in Marumba-2, 53.3% in Marumba-1, 65% in Bai Manya. In the urban setting, Kumba, 85.4% of respondents said malaria was caused by a mosquito bite. Other factors listed as ways in which malaria was transmitted include: using the same cup, dirtiness,  dirty water, through drugs, bad environment, wind, sun and  red fly. Mosquito nets were predominantly used for malaria prevention. These were obtained mostly as government donations. Respondents sought formal help mostly after 48 hours from onset of symptoms. Self-medication was commonly practiced irrespective of setting.

Conclusion: This study has shown that participants in Mbonge sub-division and Buea-road Kumba have gaps in knowledge about malaria transmission, prevention and treatment.  There is a need for tailored health-education intervention building on formal and local knowledge to reduce the imposed burden of malaria.