Open Access Short Research Article

P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and the Risk of Cervical Cancer in Zimbabwean Women

Vinie Kouamou, Nyasha Chin’ombe, Alice Matimba, Webster Kadzatsa, George Nyandoro, Cuthbert Musarurwa

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24676

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of p53 codon 72 polymorphism in Zimbabwean women and risk of cervical cancer

Study Design: Case-control study

Place and Duration of Study: Parirenyatwa Referral Hospital in Harare in between January and December 2014.

Methodology: Genomic DNA from cervical cancer patients and women without cancer was extracted from whole blood and genotyping of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

Results: The frequencies of the Arg/Arg; Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes in cervical cancer patients were reported as 15.07%, 43.84% and 41.10% respectively. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with a corresponding 95% confidence interval [95%CI] as measure of risk and association between the p53 polymorphism and the development of cervical cancer. The p53 Arg/Arg was found to be at increased risk for the development of cervical cancer (OR= 1.78). However its association with the development of cervical cancer was not statistically significant (p-value= 0.29; 95% CI, 0.54-6.12).

Conclusion: The prevalence of the Arg/Arg genotype in our study was low in women with cervical cancer. The genotype was poorly associated with the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impacts of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome (Papular Acrodermatitis of Childhood) on the Quality of Life of Children

Antonio Chuh

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25125

Background: Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-remitting eruption related to viral infections. Ribavirin has been reported to be effective in treating severe GCS. Before clinical trials on antiviral agents, the magnitude of GCS affecting the quality of life in children should be ascertained.

Aim: To investigate the impact of GCS on the QOL of children.

Methods: Our setting was a teaching clinic. We validly translated the Children Dermatology Life Quality Index into Chinese. We recruited all children aged five to 16 years diagnosed with GCS over two years. For each child with GCS, we recruited the next age-and-sex pair-matched child consulting us for atopic dermatitis (AD), and the next age-and-sex pair-matched child brought to consult us for problems unrelated to the skin as controls. All study and control subjects completed the CDLQI.

Results: 23 children were GCS and 46 children as controls were recruited. The impacts of GCS on children were significantly higher than children brought to consult us for problems unrelated to the skin (P < 0.05), with the parameters symptoms and feelings, leisure, school or holidays, and treatment mostly affected.  However, the scores were low. Four (17%) study subjects and none (0%) in the second control had total CDLQI higher than 30%. The difference is insignificant (RR: inapplicable; P = 0.11).

Impacts of AD on children were significantly higher than such for GCS (P < 0.001). Twelve (52%) children with AD and four (17%) children with GCS had total scores higher than 30% (RR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.13 – 7.94; P < 0.05).

When compared to a similar study on children with pityriasis rosea, the impacts of GCS were very similar to those of pityriasis rosea.

Conclusion: GCS casts relatively low impacts on the QOL of children. These impacts were much lower than such of AD.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Performance-based Financing of Home Visitation in Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Modern Methods of Contraception in the Kumbo East Health District, Cameroon

Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Emmanuella Talla, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Julius Atashili, Mary Bih Suh Atanga

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25077

Background: The use of modern methods of contraception (MMC) still remains a challenge in much of Sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. Performance-based Financing (PBF) home visitation was introduced in the Kumbo East Health District (KEHD), Cameroon, to increase the use of modern methods of contraception.

Objective: To determine the comparative advantage, on the one hand, of PBF home visits, and, on the other hand, the absence of such home visits, in overcoming barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception (MMC) in the Kumbo East Health District (KEHD), in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the KEHD during the period February 1 – May 31, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling method was used to recruit 262 and 221 women aged 15-49 in the intervention and non-intervention health areas respectively. A structured closed-ended questionnaire was used. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% confidence interval, power of 80% and design effect of 2. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: The average age of women was similar in both groups: 30.40 (SD 8.57) in the intervention group and 30.49 (SD 7.84) in controls. Computing logistic regression showed that home visitation had an effect on both groups in terms of where women heard about MMC (OR 13.64, 95% CI: 3.31-56.03) and (aOR 14.95, 95% CI: 3.52-62.16). Women in health areas with home visits were 2.34 times more likely to have cultural approval to use MMC than their counterparts without home visits (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.37-3.99) and (aOR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.33-3.94). Women in health areas with home visitation were less likely to have disapproval from their partners to use MMC (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32-0.73) and (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.71)

Conclusion: PBF home visitation was effective in overcoming barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Resistant Non-acid Fast Bacteria Pathogens, Isolated from Tuberculosis (TB) Patients with Known HIV Status from the North West Region of Cameroon

Irene Ane-Anyangwe, Damian Nota Anong, Yvette Forchibe Ache, Henry Dilonga Meriki, Fritz Roland Fonkeng Nsongomanyi, Vincent P. K. Titanji

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25378

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of Non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacterial pathogens from TB patients with known HIV status as well as their resistant patterns to commonly used antibiotics.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional laboratory based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology/Bacteriology Unit, Bamenda Regional Hospital, from July 2014 to March 2015.

Methodology: We collected sputum from 111 newly diagnosed TB patients who were referred to do a sputum test at the Bamenda General Hospital TB unit. Sixty one (61) were men, 50 women, 70 HIV positive, 41 HIV negative with age ranging from 20-80 years. Data on Socio-demographic factors as well as clinical history were collected using structured questionnaires. One early morning sputum sample was examined microscopically and cultured on blood and chocolate agars. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was then performed for all the isolates using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.

Results: Non-MTB bacterial pathogens were recorded in 43 (38.7%) of the 111 participants in this study. Thirty (42.85%) non-acid fast bacteria was found amongst the 70 HIV positive cases, higher than in the HIV negative group 13/41 (31.70%). These pathogens were also higher in females 24 (55.8%) than in males 19 (44.2%). Bacteria isolated included 28 S. aureus, 12 S. pneumoniae and 6 P. aeruginosa. Although, the prevalence was higher in the HIV positive group and in females, the differences in both cases were not statistically significant (P= .523, .324 respectively). Upon antimicrobial sensitivity testing all the isolates showed high susceptibility to Gentamicin (73.9%), Ciprofloxacin (71.1%) and Chloramphenicol (71.7%) but were all resistant to Penicillin (100.0%), Oxacillin (87.3%) and Amoxicillin (96.1%).

Conclusion: HIV patients were more at risk of developing other Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) with non MTB bacteria implicated. Therefore in the treatment of tuberculosis, considerations should be made about Non MTB bacterial pathogens and their treatment as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Leptospirosis Infections among Acute Febrile Patients in Lakhimpur and Dhemaji Districts, India

Mridul Malakar, Susmita Bose Roy, Fanindra Kumar Pandey

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25132

Leptospirosis is a disease condition of infected wild or domestic animals. Humans get this infection when they come in touch with the contaminated soil or water in the infected animal’s urine/excreta of animal reservoirs directly or indirectly. Water logging during rainy session, traditional cultivation with animals and water flow to the rivers are common in Assam. Those events may increase the risk of infection and that is why Lakhimpur and Dhemaji districts were choose for our study area as both districts are neighboring of hilly area (Arunachal Pradesh) and found maximum water logging. Blood samples were collected from the acute febrile patients reported to the laboratory for different tests like typhoid, japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue, malaria etc. Serums were obtained from the whole blood and selected only the JE, dengue, malaria, typhoid negative samples for our studys, after the consent from the patients or attendance of the patients. The test results showed that 2.13% (16/750) patients were positive for leptospirosis. Where 12.5% (2/16) positive patients were from Dhemaji district and races were from Lakhimpur. Clinical finding represented fever 100% (16/16), headache 68.75% (11/16), myalgia 50% (8/16), conjunctival suffusion 6.25% (1/16), jaundice 12.5% (2/16), cardiac arrhythmia 12.5%(2/16), skin rash 6.25% (1/16), haemorrhage 6.25% (1/16), unconsciousness/semiconciousness 12.5% (2/16), nausea/vomiting 6.25% (1/16), and abdominal pain 6.25% (1/16) in the positive patients. This proves the prevalence of leptospirosis in the study districts of Assam. An awareness of disease transmission could minimize the disease risk.