Open Access Minireview Article

Parasitic Zoonoses from Dogs: How Common are they in Zambia

Joyce Siwila

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25331

Zoonotic parasitic diseases including helminths and protozoa are common especially in areas with poor living conditions in developing countries. The poor living conditions combined with poor veterinary services and lack of awareness of the zoonotic diseases exacerbates the risks of disease transmission from animals to humans. Dogs serve different purposes, offering several benefits to humans, including companionship, life-saving actions, security as well as hunting and farming. However, dogs have also served as a source of infection for other animals and humans, and remain an important source of infectious diseases. The close relationship between dogs and humans and the fact that dogs live in close proximity to humans makes it possible for parasite/disease transmission to occur either directly or indirectly. This review is aimed at giving an update and creating awareness on the occurrence of some zoonotic infections (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Trypanosoma spp and helminths) from dogs in Zambia, and highlights the need for epidemiological studies to understand the exact role dogs play in these infections. Information generated from these studies will be used by policy makers and relevant authorities to educate communities and create awareness on these zoonotic diseases which will in turn assist in preventing such infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban–Rural Disparities and Determinants of Nutritional Status of Under-Five Children: An Example of Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan

Ibidolapo T. Ijarotimi, Oluwapelumi A. Adebiyi, Akinola Fatiregun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25292

Background: Nutrition is an important element of a child’s survival and development. To achieve MDG 4 in Nigeria, nutritional status of under-five children needs to be improved as malnutrition remains an underlying factor in about one third of under-five deaths in Nigeria. Unfortunately, along with high prevalence of malnutrition, urban-rural disparities persist in child nutritional outcomes in Nigeria.

Objective: To determine the differences in and predictors of the nutritional status of children in urban and rural areas of Akinyele LGA, Ibadan.

Methods: A community based comparative cross sectional study was carried out in one urban and one rural ward of Akinyele LGA. Data was collected from mothers of 614 children. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from the children and Z scores generated using the WHO standard population. The children were classified as stunted, wasted or underweight using a cut off of -2 SD and severely stunted, severely wasted and severely underweight using a cut off of -3 SD. 

Results: Of all the children, 56.2% were stunted, 17.4% were underweight and only 9% were wasted. Urban-rural location was significantly associated with stunting and underweight but not wasting. Rural dwellers were more likely to be underweight (OR 3.000, 95% CI 1.907- 4.718) and more likely to be stunted (OR 1.857, 95% CI 1.344- 2.565). The predictors of either or all of the nutritional indices were paternal education, having a sanitary toilet in the home, exclusive breastfeeding, socioeconomic status, birth order of the child, exclusive breastfeeding and complete immunization. 

Conclusion: Disparities exist in the nutritional status of under-five children which is not due to location. Drivers of these disparities need to be identified in order for appropriate policies and actions to be taken.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Randomized Study Evaluating the Role of Oral Curcumin along with Chemoradiationin Management of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma

Deepak Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Nupur Bansal, J. Vijaya Kumar, Anil Khurana, Ashok Chauhan

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25780

Aim: This study was to evaluate the role of Curcumin along with or without chemoradiation in the management of locally advanced head and neck cancers (LHNC) in terms of tolerability, toxicity and response. Sixty treatment naive histopathologically proved cases LHNC were included in this prospective randomized study.

Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with weekly cisplatin and capsule Curcumin from the first day of EBRT till the completion in the dose of 1gm every 8 hourly (Group I/Study Group) and EBRT with weekly cisplatin only (Group II/Control Group).

Results: There were lower grades of statistically insignificant haemoglobin (grade 2 p value- 0.300) and total leucocyte count (grade 1 p value- 0.313), toxicities in group II in compared to group I during treatment. The acute skin and mucosal reactions were less in group I than group II without any statistically significant association during treatment and follow ups. Statistically significant less blood urea (grade 1 p value- 0.019) toxicities observed in group I, in compared to group II during treatment. There were statistically significant fewer grade 3 and 4 vomiting (p value- 0.037) in group II. At one year follow up 67% was disease free in group I in comparison to 56% in group II.

Conclusion: Curcumin, in management of LHNC, seems to decreases haematological, renal, skin and mucosal chemoradiation induced toxicities results in timely completion of intended treatment without any financial burden on patients and improves the disease control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Humoral Immune Response in Parvoviral Vaccinated Dogs Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei

Ogbu Kenneth Ikejiofor, Anene Boniface Maduka, Nweze Nwakego Ernestina, Eze Ukamaka Uchenna, Chukwudi Ijeoma Chekwube, Eze Ikenna Onyema, Agwu Eunice Ogeyi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24973

The humoral immune response in parvoviral vaccinated dogs experimentally infected with single and mixed infection of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei was studied in mongrel dogs. Twenty mongrel dogs of mixed sexes and approximately 4-6 months of age weighing an average of 6.3 kg were used for the experiment. After the experiment, some of the dogs were given to the department of Veterinary medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka while the rest were sold out in dog market. They were acclimatized for three weeks prior to commencement of the study during which time routine treatments and screening were done. The dogs were divided into five groups of four dogs each. Group A was vaccinated and uninfected, group B was unvaccinated and uninfected, group C was vaccinated  and infected with T. congolense, group D was vaccinated  and infected with T. brucei and group E was vaccinated  and infected with T. congolense and T. brucei.

Results obtained from this study provided evidence that dogs vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV) produced protective antibody titre whereas those infected with trypanosome parasites failed to mount a strong humoral immune response to CPV vaccination. This was evident by the low Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titre shown in the study. The IgG titre significantly increased after revaccination in all vaccinated groups as evident in the increased S-value. The reduction in the immune response to the vaccination was partially dependent on the species of trypanosomes used in the infection. Furthermore, revaccination with canine parvoviral vaccine enhances immunity against parvovirus in dogs. It was thus concluded that canine trypanosomosis affects the immune response to parvovirus vaccination by decreasing the IgG antibody titre.

Open Access Review Article

Perspectives on Community Tuberculosis Care in Nigeria

Oluwadamilare Akingbade

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23447

Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared a public health emergency in Nigeria. Currently, the country has the highest TB burden in Africa and the third in the whole world behind China and India only. Further complicating the efforts at combating this ugly scenario is the rising multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) whose emergence can go a long way in nullifying the previous efforts in controlling TB in Nigeria. From 665 MDR-TB cases notified in 2013, the number of such cases has been estimated to climb to 29, 469 cases in 2020.

In 2006, World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new six point Stop TB strategy; empowering the community to take charge in TB prevention and control is one of the key points. Similarly, Community Tuberculosis Care has been piloted in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia in a multi-national project to evaluate community contribution to TB care and found to be effective, acceptable, affordable and cost-effective.

Down the years, many efforts have been employed in the prevention and control of TB in Nigeria. Some degree of success has been noticed but with the current statistics; there is a lot more that needs to put in place. Community Based Tuberculosis Care (CBTC) will go a long way in reaching the un-reached, improving the case-detection rate and reducing stigmatization of patients. All these will align Nigeria to the Post-2015 global goal of not just controlling but ending the global epidemic.