Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Ikata-Likoko Area of Mount Cameroon: A Cross Sectional Study
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health,
Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating socio-demographic, clinical, as well as preventive measures associated with malaria parasite prevalence and anaemia in the Ikata-Likoko area.
Study Design: It was a cross-sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Ikata-Likoko area of the Mount Cameroon area in the South West Region, from June to July 2014.
Methodology: Five hundred and sixteen participants (273 females, 243 males) were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic data, febrile/clinical history and malaria prevention methods were recorded on a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected for the detection of malaria parasite in Giemsa-stained blood smears and for determination of haematological parameters using an electronic blood cell analyser.
Results: Out of 516 participants, 183 (35.5%) were positive for malaria parasite. Parasite prevalence varied significantly with age (P=.001) where children 5-15 years were the most infected (47.7%, 72). Individuals with no formal or primary education were significantly more infected (38.0%, 145) than their counterparts with secondary or tertiary education (P=.046). With respect to occupation, pupils and students (41.7%, 108) were the most infected and the difference was significant (P=.009). Prevalence was not affected by gender and locality. The overall geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 1967/µL of blood (range: 64-31680). GMPD was significantly higher in participants from Mile 14 (21178/µL of blood, range: 64-24000) than those from other localities. GMPD did not vary with gender, age, level of school attainment and occupation. Fever (48.9%, 216), (OR: 47.1, 95%CI: 15.1-71.2, P=.00), vomiting (1.17%; 7), (OR: 11.15, 95%CI: 1.2-107.8, P=.04) and anaemia (26.1%, 110), (OR: 2.39, 95%CI: 1.3-3.0, P=.007) were clinical factors associated with malaria parasitaemia. Individuals living in wooden houses had a higher prevalence of malaria (36.3%, 182), (OR: 0.097 95%CI: 0.1-0.8, P=.03) as well as GMPD (1943, CI: 64-31680, P=.044) than those in brick houses.
Conclusion: Malaria and anaemia remain high in the area. Community awareness campaign and the intensification of prevention strategies could reduce the prevalence.