Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Ikata-Likoko Area of Mount Cameroon: A Cross Sectional Study

Calvin Bisong Ebai, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Jude Ebah Yunga, Leopold Gustave Lehman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25890

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating socio-demographic, clinical, as well as preventive measures associated with malaria parasite prevalence and anaemia in the Ikata-Likoko area.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Ikata-Likoko area of the Mount Cameroon area in the South West Region, from June to July 2014.

Methodology: Five hundred and sixteen participants (273 females, 243 males) were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic data, febrile/clinical history and malaria prevention methods were recorded on a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected for the detection of malaria parasite in Giemsa-stained blood smears and for determination of haematological parameters using an electronic blood cell analyser.

Results: Out of 516 participants, 183 (35.5%) were positive for malaria parasite. Parasite prevalence varied significantly with age (P=.001) where children 5-15 years were the most infected (47.7%, 72). Individuals with no formal or primary education were significantly more infected (38.0%, 145) than their counterparts with secondary or tertiary education (P=.046). With respect to occupation, pupils and students (41.7%, 108) were the most infected and the difference was significant (P=.009). Prevalence was not affected by gender and locality. The overall geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 1967/µL of blood (range: 64-31680). GMPD was significantly higher in participants from Mile 14 (21178/µL of blood, range: 64-24000) than those from other localities. GMPD did not vary with gender, age, level of school attainment and occupation. Fever (48.9%, 216), (OR: 47.1, 95%CI: 15.1-71.2, P=.00), vomiting (1.17%; 7), (OR: 11.15, 95%CI: 1.2-107.8, P=.04) and anaemia (26.1%, 110), (OR: 2.39, 95%CI: 1.3-3.0, P=.007) were clinical factors associated with malaria parasitaemia. Individuals living in wooden houses had a higher prevalence of malaria (36.3%, 182), (OR: 0.097 95%CI: 0.1-0.8, P=.03) as well as GMPD (1943, CI: 64-31680, P=.044) than those in brick houses.

Conclusion: Malaria and anaemia remain high in the area. Community awareness campaign and the intensification of prevention strategies could reduce the prevalence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Workplace Assessment of Hypertension: Prevalence and Awareness in a Food Processing Industry in Owerri Nigeria

Charles C. Onoh, Ify L. Nwaogazie

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25873

Workplace health assessment is the process of gathering information about the factors that support or hinder the health of employees at particular opportunities to improve or address them. It helps to identify the current picture of health at a company as well as improve potentials to increase productivity, decrease absenteeism and health cost for both employees and the organisation. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and awareness of hypertension among food processing industry workers. The prevalence was determined as a rate and reported in percentage as 48.6%. The awareness among workers was determined using the Kendall’s W coefficient of concordance. A total of 107 workers were physically and anthropometrically assessed with respect to blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, waist circumference, weight, height, and body mass index. Data on sex, age, etc, were equally obtained. The Kendall’s W Statistic was 0.5235 (52.35%) on awareness of hypertension. This implies that there was an agreement of about 52.35% on awareness of hypertension. The high prevalence of hypertension with a relatively average awareness among food processing industry workers strongly suggest that there is paucity of Occupational health services in the manufacturing industry. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Indian Infants and Mothers from Sub Himalayan Region

Seema Sharma, Gaurav Katoch, Milap Sharma, Anand Gunjiganvi

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/25945

Introduction: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that is essential for normal absorption of calcium from the gut. Apart from rickets vitamin D deficiency has many other negative health associated conditions like infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and malignancies. Nowadays in children, there is a growing evidence of association of vitamin D deficiency with increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI), impaired neurological function and possibly mental health conditions, namely schizophrenia.

Objective: To find out serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH) D) levels in healthy infants and mothers in a tertiary health care set up in a hilly terrain of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Methodology: An observational study planned to find the 25-Hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH) D) levels among healthy infants and their mothers who came for routine health check up after taking written consent.

Results: Total 80 subjects studied and 40 infants who came for routine health check up the median 25 (OH) D levels was 12.70 ng/ml. The median 25 (OH) D levels of mothers of infants were 11.15 ng/ml. The observations showed vitamin D deficiency in majority (78.75%) of our studied subjects.

Conclusion: This study showed vitamin D deficiency in healthy infants and their mothers. The observations of the study indicate that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in high risk population group in Himachal Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety Precaution; Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Sociodemographic Determinants among Health Care Workers at Primary Health Care Level in Enugu State, Nigeria

Elias Chikee Aniwada, Chika Onwasigwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/26390

Aim: This aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, practice and sociodemographic determinants of Safety Precaution (SP) among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at Primary Health Care level.

Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Selected Primary Health Care Centres in Enugu state, Nigeria, between April and June 2013.

Methodology: Health Care Workers eligible for voluntary participation were selected and studied using pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used. Level of significance was at p ≤ 0.05

Results: It was based on 435 Health Care Workers. Their mean age was 38.14±9.03. Majority were females 281(64.6%), had tertiary education 313(72.0%) and Community Health Extension Workers (CHEW) 125(28.7%) Mean knowledge of concept, components of, correct time to wash their hands, conditions requiring SP was above average (>50%). They equally had positive attitude and good practice of SP.(>50%). Over 50% were vaccinated against Hepatitis B virus. Sex (χ2 =7.81, p = 0.005), cadre of HCWs (χ11.62, p= 0.040) and marital status (χ2= 17.895, p=0.001) showed significant association with their knowledge. Educational level (χ2 30.11, p = 0.013) and cadre (χ2 88.25, p =0.002) showed significant association with their mean attitude of SP. No variable showed significant associations with mean practice of SP. Doctors were about 2.6 times (AOR 95% CI; 1.72-3.97) to have good knowledge, about 5.8 times (AOR 95% CI; 3.70-9.02) to have positive attitude and about 2.3 times (AOR 95% CI; 1.37-3.71) to have good practice than ward maids or cleaners.

Conclusion: Knowledge attitude and practice on safety precaution were good among health care workers. High formal education may not guarantee correct knowledge of safety precaution. Being a doctor is a predictor of correct knowledge, positive attitude and good practice of safety precaution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Specific Incidence of Breast Cancer in Calabar, Nigeria

G. A. Ebughe, I. A. Ekanem, O. E. Omoronyia, M. A. Nnoli, V. J. Nwagbara, J. E. Udosen, M. S. Umoh, T. I. Ugbem

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23502

Aim: To determine the incidence of breast cancer in our uncharted population with a view to determining the disease burden so as to aid planning and intervention.

Study Design: A trend analysis of breast cancers in Calabar between 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2013.

Place and Duration of Study: Calabar Cancer Registry, May to June 2015.

Methodology: Data obtained from record of registered cases of breast cancer seen within 2004 to 2013 from Calabar registry area, was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. The information sought for includes sex of patients, age, place domiciled in the last one year, rural or urban dwelling as well as topography and morphology of the breast cancers. The population of females domiciled in Calabar was determined using the 2006 national population census data and 3.0 % population growth as specified by the national population commission.

Results: Three hundred and sixty nine cases of breast cancers, comprising 11 males and 358 females were seen during this period. Male breast cancer cases were excluded from further analysis. The mean (SD) age of female cases was 44.9 (11.9) years, ranging from 23 to 85 years. Approximately half of the cases (176 or 49.2%) were seen in the 34 to 50 years age group with commonest age group at diagnosis being 40 - 44 years age group. There was a fairly steady increase in annual frequency of cases seen within study period, with 2011 yielding the highest proportion of cases (54 or 14.5%), and about two-thirds of cases (227 or 63.4%) were seen in the latter half of the 10-year study period. Adjusted incidence rate was highest in 2010 (61.3 per 100,000), and high incidence rates was found among subjects in 65-69 year age group in 2009 (179 per 100,000), and 55-59 year age group in 2010 (192 per 100,000).The age specific incidence rate of breast cancer in Calabar is 37.4 per 100,000.

Conclusion: This study has shown that breast cancer is common in Calabar, and it occurs at a relatively early age.